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Proteins. AICE Biology. Amino Acids. 20 essential amino acids Monomers of proteins. Amino Acids are made of:. -Central carbon -Carboxyl group (-COOH) -Amino group (-NH 2 ) -variable R group. Side Chain-Functional Group-R. Neutral and hydrophobic: Alanine (Ala); Leucine (Leu)

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proteins

Proteins

AICE Biology

amino acids
Amino Acids
  • 20 essential amino acids
  • Monomers of proteins
amino acids are made of
Amino Acids are made of:

-Central carbon

-Carboxyl group (-COOH)

-Amino group (-NH2)

-variable R group

side chain functional group r
Side Chain-Functional Group-R
  • Neutral and hydrophobic:

Alanine (Ala); Leucine (Leu)

  • Neutral and polar:

Cysteine (Cys), Glycine (Gly)

  • Acidic: Aspartic Acid (Asp)
  • Basic: Arginine (Arg)
you try it
You Try It…
  • Using p. 94 in Soper as a reference, write down the structural formula of the tripeptide formed by Ala, Gly, and Ser joined together in that order.
bonds used in protein structure
Bonds Used in Protein Structure
  • Peptide Bond:
  • Condensation removes water to form a dipeptide
  • Ends?
r groups
R Groups…

2. Ionic Bond

  • pH dependent
  • Acid groups: -
  • Basic groups: +
disulfide continued
Disulfide Continued
  • Cysteine only
  • Strong bond

-within chain

-between chains

slide11
4. Hydrogen Bonding
  • In –OH or NH2

-H becomes positive

-N or O become negative

  • Attraction along entire length of chain
slide12
5. Hydrophobic
  • Nonpolar R groups stick together
  • Fold to exclude water
protein confirmation
Protein Confirmation
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary
  • Quaternary

….Denatured (disruption in the conformation)

jigsaw
Jigsaw

1. Select a conformational level.

2. Define the level.

3. Explain the role of bonding in the level.

4. Give an illustration or example.

classification by structure
Fibrous

-Secondary structure most important

-Insoluble in water

-Physically tough

-Long, parallel polypeptides cross-linked

Globular

-Tertiary structure

-Soluble

-Tightly folded polypeptide chains to form spherical shape

Classification by Structure
your turn
Your Turn
  • Based on function, identify the following proteins as globular or fibrous:

1. collagen 6. keratin

2. Insulin 7. collagen (tendons, bones)

3. myosin (in muscle)

4. silk

5. enzymes

homework
Homework:
  • Learn one function in living things of the following inorganic ions:
  • Calcium 6. Nitrate
  • Sodium 7. Phosphate
  • Potassium
  • Magnesium
  • Chloride
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