Proteins
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Proteins. AICE Biology. Amino Acids. 20 essential amino acids Monomers of proteins. Amino Acids are made of:. -Central carbon -Carboxyl group (-COOH) -Amino group (-NH 2 ) -variable R group. Side Chain-Functional Group-R. Neutral and hydrophobic: Alanine (Ala); Leucine (Leu)

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Proteins

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Proteins

Proteins

AICE Biology


Amino acids

Amino Acids

  • 20 essential amino acids

  • Monomers of proteins


Amino acids are made of

Amino Acids are made of:

-Central carbon

-Carboxyl group (-COOH)

-Amino group (-NH2)

-variable R group


Side chain functional group r

Side Chain-Functional Group-R

  • Neutral and hydrophobic:

    Alanine (Ala); Leucine (Leu)

  • Neutral and polar:

    Cysteine (Cys), Glycine (Gly)

  • Acidic: Aspartic Acid (Asp)

  • Basic: Arginine (Arg)


You try it

You Try It…

  • Using p. 94 in Soper as a reference, write down the structural formula of the tripeptide formed by Ala, Gly, and Ser joined together in that order.


Bonds used in protein structure

Bonds Used in Protein Structure

  • Peptide Bond:

  • Condensation removes water to form a dipeptide

  • Ends?


R groups

R Groups…

2. Ionic Bond

  • pH dependent

  • Acid groups: -

  • Basic groups: +


Proteins

3. Disulfide Bond


Disulfide continued

Disulfide Continued

  • Cysteine only

  • Strong bond

    -within chain

    -between chains


Proteins

4. Hydrogen Bonding

  • In –OH or NH2

    -H becomes positive

    -N or O become negative

  • Attraction along entire length of chain


Proteins

5. Hydrophobic

  • Nonpolar R groups stick together

  • Fold to exclude water


Protein confirmation

Protein Confirmation

  • Primary

  • Secondary

  • Tertiary

  • Quaternary

    ….Denatured (disruption in the conformation)


Jigsaw

Jigsaw

1. Select a conformational level.

2. Define the level.

3. Explain the role of bonding in the level.

4. Give an illustration or example.


Classification by structure

Fibrous

-Secondary structure most important

-Insoluble in water

-Physically tough

-Long, parallel polypeptides cross-linked

Globular

-Tertiary structure

-Soluble

-Tightly folded polypeptide chains to form spherical shape

Classification by Structure


Your turn

Your Turn

  • Based on function, identify the following proteins as globular or fibrous:

    1. collagen6. keratin

    2. Insulin7. collagen (tendons, bones)

    3. myosin (in muscle)

    4. silk

    5. enzymes


Homework

Homework:

  • Learn one function in living things of the following inorganic ions:

  • Calcium6. Nitrate

  • Sodium7. Phosphate

  • Potassium

  • Magnesium

  • Chloride


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