Metal atoms observed in the thermosphere over Arecibo. Jonathan S. Friedman (SRI-AO) Xinzhao Chu (UCB–CIRES) Christiano Brum (SRI-AO) Steven M. Smith (BU) Jia Yue (NCAR ) (and many others). AO K Lidar – 12 March 2005. (Note the log scale). Layer descent rate is ~ 20 km/ hr , or ~ 6 m/s.
Jonathan S. Friedman (SRI-AO)
Xinzhao Chu (UCB–CIRES)
Steven M. Smith (BU)
(and many others)
(Note the log scale)
Layer descent rate is ~ 20 km/hr, or ~ 6 m/s
Neutralization production of K
recombination rate ≈ 10-11 cm3/s
K+ lifetime is ~240 hrs in a 2×105 e-/cc Es
Ionization loss of K
for O2k = 5.6 × 10-9 cm3/s
for NO k = 4 × 10-9cm3/s
K lifetime is ~140 hrs at 135 km.
K production exceeds loss by 25x
The ionogram indicates the presence of a fairly strong Es layer. 4 MHz [e-] ~ 2×105/cc
A hint at an enhancement at 04 UT (local midnight), 6-h wave?
- An upward-propagating GW of period ca. 115 min is seen to reflect after 4 UT.
- Discontinuity in the profile centroid at 6:40 UT.
Note: Geomagnetic activity: Kp ≤ 1, low TEC.