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Introduction to FPGA Devices. World of Integrated Circuits. Integrated Circuits. Full-Custom ASICs. Semi-Custom ASICs. User Programmable. PLD. FPGA. PAL. PLA. PML. LUT (Look-Up Table). MUX. Gates. Two competing implementation approaches. FPGA F ield P rogrammable G ate A rray.

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introduction to fpga devices

Introduction to FPGA Devices

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

world of integrated circuits
World of Integrated Circuits

Integrated Circuits

Full-Custom

ASICs

Semi-Custom

ASICs

User

Programmable

PLD

FPGA

PAL

PLA

PML

LUT

(Look-Up Table)

MUX

Gates

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

slide3

Two competing implementation approaches

FPGA

FieldProgrammable

GateArray

ASIC

ApplicationSpecific

IntegratedCircuit

  • bought off the shelf
  • and reconfigured by
  • designers themselves
  • designs must be sent
  • for expensive and time
  • consuming fabrication
  • in semiconductor foundry
  • no physical layout design;
  • design ends with
  • a bitstream used
  • to configure a device
  • designed all the way
  • from behavioral description
  • to physical layout

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

slide4

Block RAMs

Block RAMs

What is an FPGA?

Configurable

Logic

Blocks

I/O

Blocks

Block

RAMs

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

which way to go
Which Way to Go?

ASICs

FPGAs

Off-the-shelf

High performance

Low development cost

Low power

Short time to market

Low cost in

high volumes

Reconfigurability

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

other fpga advantages
Other FPGA Advantages
  • Manufacturing cycle for ASIC is very costly, lengthy and engages lots of manpower
    • Mistakes not detected at design time have large impact on development time and cost
    • FPGAs are perfect for rapid prototyping of digital circuits
  • Easy upgrades like in case of software
  • Unique applications
    • reconfigurable computing

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

major fpga vendors
Major FPGA Vendors

SRAM-based FPGAs

  • Xilinx, Inc.
  • Altera Corp.
  • Atmel
  • Lattice Semiconductor

Flash & antifuse FPGAs

  • Actel Corp.
  • Quick Logic Corp.

Share over 60% of the market

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

xilinx
Xilinx

Programmable

Logic Devices

  • Primary products: FPGAs and the associated CAD software
  • Main headquarters in San Jose, CA
  • Fabless* Semiconductor and Software Company
    • UMC (Taiwan) {*Xilinx acquired an equity stake in UMC in 1996}
    • Seiko Epson (Japan)
    • TSMC (Taiwan)

ISE Alliance and Foundation

Series Design Software

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

xilinx fpga families
Xilinx FPGA Families
  • Old families
    • XC3000, XC4000, XC5200
    • Old 0.5µm, 0.35µm and 0.25µm technology. Not recommended for modern designs.
  • High-performance families
    • Virtex (0.22µm)
    • Virtex-E, Virtex-EM (0.18µm)
    • Virtex-II, Virtex-II PRO (0.13µm)
    • Virtex-4 (0.09µm)
  • Low Cost Family
    • Spartan/XL – derived from XC4000
    • Spartan-II – derived from Virtex
    • Spartan-IIE – derived from Virtex-E
    • Spartan-3

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

xilinx fpga block diagram
Xilinx FPGA Block Diagram

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

clb structure
CLB Structure

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

clb slice structure
CLB Slice Structure
  • Each slice contains two sets of the following:
    • Four-input LUT
      • Any 4-input logic function,
      • or 16-bit x 1 sync RAM
      • or 16-bit shift register
    • Carry & Control
      • Fast arithmetic logic
      • Multiplier logic
      • Multiplexer logic
    • Storage element
      • Latch or flip-flop
      • Set and reset
      • True or inverted inputs
      • Sync. or async. control

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

lut look up table functionality
LUT (Look-Up Table) Functionality
  • Look-Up tables are primary elements for logic implementation
  • Each LUT can implement any function of 4 inputs

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

5 input functions implemented using two luts
5-Input Functions implemented using two LUTs
  • One CLB Slice can implement any function of 5 inputs
  • Logic function is partitioned between two LUTs
  • F5 multiplexer selects LUT

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

5 input functions implemented using two luts1
5-Input Functions implemented using two LUTs

LUT

LUT

LUT

LUT

OUT

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

distributed ram
Distributed RAM

RAM16X1S

D

WE

WCLK

=

O

A0

A1

A2

A3

LUT

LUT

LUT

RAM32X1S

D

WE

WCLK

A0

O

A1

A2

A3

A4

or

RAM16X2S

D0

D1

WE

=

WCLK

O0

A0

O1

RAM16X1D

A1

A2

D

A3

WE

or

WCLK

A0

SPO

A1

A2

A3

DPRA0

DPO

DPRA1

DPRA2

DPRA3

  • CLB LUT configurable as Distributed RAM
    • A LUT equals 16x1 RAM
    • Implements Single and Dual-Ports
    • Cascade LUTs to increase RAM size
  • Synchronous write
  • Synchronous/Asynchronous read
    • Accompanying flip-flops used for synchronous read

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

shift register
Each LUT can be configured as shift register

Serial in, serial out

Dynamically addressable delay up to 16 cycles

For programmable pipeline

Cascade for greater cycle delays

Use CLB flip-flops to add depth

Shift Register

LUT

D

D

D

D

Q

Q

Q

Q

IN

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CLK

LUT

=

OUT

DEPTH[3:0]

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

shift register1
Shift Register

12 Cycles

64

64

Operation A

Operation B

4 Cycles

8 Cycles

Operation C

3 Cycles

3 Cycles

9-Cycle imbalance

  • Register-rich FPGA
    • Allows for addition of pipeline stages to increase throughput
  • Data paths must be balanced to keep desired functionality

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

carry control logic
Carry & Control Logic

COUT

YB

Carry

&

Control

Logic

Look-Up

Table

Y

G4

G3

G2

G1

S

D

Q

O

CK

EC

R

F5IN

BY

SR

XB

Look-Up

Table

Carry

&

Control

Logic

X

S

F4

F3

F2

F1

D

Q

O

CK

EC

R

CIN

CLK

CE

SLICE

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

fast carry logic
Fast Carry Logic
  • Each CLB contains separate logic and routing for the fast generation of sum & carry signals
    • Increases efficiency and performance of adders, subtractors, accumulators, comparators, and counters
  • Carry logic is independent of normal logic and routing resources

MSB

Carry Logic

Routing

LSB

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

accessing carry logic
Accessing Carry Logic
  • All major synthesis tools can infer carry logic for arithmetic functions
    • Addition (SUM <= A + B)
    • Subtraction (DIFF <= A - B)
    • Comparators (if A < B then…)
    • Counters (count <= count +1)

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

block ram
Block RAM

Port A

Spartan-II

True Dual-Port

Block RAM

Port B

Block RAM

  • Most efficient memory implementation
    • Dedicated blocks of memory
  • Ideal for most memory requirements
    • 4 to 104 memory blocks
      • 18 kbits = 18,432 bits per block
    • Use multiple blocks for larger memories
  • Builds both single and true dual-port RAMs

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

spartan 3 block ram amounts
Spartan-3 Block RAM Amounts

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

block ram port aspect ratios
Block RAM Port Aspect Ratios

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

block ram port aspect ratios1
Block RAM Port Aspect Ratios

1

2

4

0

0

0

4k x 4

8k x 2

4,095

16k x 1

8,191

8+1

0

2k x (8+1)

2047

16+2

0

1024 x (16+2)

1023

16,383

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

dual port block ram
Dual Port Block RAM

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

dual port bus flexibility
Dual-Port Bus Flexibility

RAMB4_S4_S16

  • Each port can be configured with a different data bus width
  • Provides easy data width conversion without any additional logic

WEA

Port A In

1K-Bit Depth

Port A Out

18-Bit Width

ENA

RSTA

DOA[17:0]

CLKA

ADDRA[9:0]

DIA[17:0]

WEB

Port B Out

9-Bit Width

Port B In

2k-Bit Depth

ENB

RSTB

DOB[8:0]

CLKB

ADDRB[8:0]

DIB[15:0]

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

two independent single port rams
Added advantage of True Dual-Port

No wasted RAM Bits

Can split a Dual-Port 16K RAM into two Single-Port 8K RAM

Simultaneous independent access to each RAM

To access the lower RAM

Tie the MSB address bit to Logic Low

To access the upper RAM

Tie the MSB address bit to Logic High

Two Independent Single-Port RAMs

DOA[0]

WEA

ENA

RSTA

CLKA

ADDRA[12:0]

DOB[0]

DIA[0]

WEB

ENB

RSTB

CLKB

ADDRB[12:0]

DIB[0]

RAMB4_S1_S1

Port A In

8K-Bit Depth

Port A Out

1-Bit Width

VCC, ADDR[12:0]

Port B In

8K-Bit Depth

Port B Out

1-Bit Width

GND, ADDR[12:0]

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

new 18 x 18 embedded multiplier
New 18 x 18 Embedded Multiplier
  • Fast arithmetic functions
    • Optimized to implement multiply / accumulate modules

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

18 x 18 multiplier
18 x 18 Multiplier

18 x 18

Multiplier

Data_A

(18 bits)

Output

(36 bits)

Data_B

(18 bits)

  • Embedded 18-bit x 18-bit multiplier
    • 2’s complement signed operation
  • Multipliers are organized in columns

Note: See Virtex-II Data Sheet for updated performances

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

basic i o block structure
Basic I/O Block Structure

Q

D

Three-State

EC

FF Enable

Three-StateControl

Clock

SR

Set/Reset

Q

D

Output

EC

FF Enable

Output Path

SR

Direct Input

FF Enable

Input Path

Q

D

Registered Input

EC

SR

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

iob functionality
IOB Functionality
  • IOB provides interface between the package pins and CLBs
  • Each IOB can work as uni- or bi-directional I/O
  • Outputs can be forced into High Impedance
  • Inputs and outputs can be registered
    • advised for high-performance I/O
  • Inputs can be delayed

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

routing resources
Routing Resources

CLB

CLB

CLB

PSM

PSM

Programmable

Switch

Matrix

CLB

CLB

CLB

PSM

PSM

CLB

CLB

CLB

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

clock distribution
Clock Distribution

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

spartan 3 fpga family members
Spartan-3 FPGA Family Members

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

slide37

FPGA Nomenclature

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

device part marking
Device Part Marking

We’re Using: XC3S100-4FG256

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

virtex ii 1 5v architecture
Virtex-II 1.5V Architecture

Block RAMs

Block RAMs

Block RAMs

Block RAMs

I/O

Block

Configurable

Logic

Block

Multipliers 18 x 18

Multipliers 18 x 18

Multipliers 18 x 18

Multipliers 18 x 18

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

virtex ii 1 5v
Virtex-II 1.5V

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

virtex ii block selectram
Virtex-II Block SelectRAM
  • Virtex-II BRAM is 18 kbits
    • Additional “parity” bits available in selected configurations

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

using library components in vhdl code

Using Library Components in VHDL Code

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

ram 16x1 1
RAM 16x1 (1)

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all;

library UNISIM;

use UNISIM.all;

entity RAM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED is

port(

CLK : in STD_LOGIC;

WE : in STD_LOGIC;

ADDR : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 downto 0);

DATA_IN : in STD_LOGIC;

DATA_OUT : out STD_LOGIC

);

end RAM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

ram 16x1 2
RAM 16x1 (2)

architecture RAM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED_STRUCTURAL of RAM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED is

attribute INIT : string;

attribute INIT of RAM16X1_S_1: label is "F0C1";

-- Component declaration of the "ram16x1s(ram16x1s_v)" unit

-- File name contains "ram16x1s" entity: ./src/unisim_vital.vhd

component ram16x1s

generic(

INIT : BIT_VECTOR(15 downto 0) := X"0000");

port(

O : out std_ulogic;

A0 : in std_ulogic;

A1 : in std_ulogic;

A2 : in std_ulogic;

A3 : in std_ulogic;

D : in std_ulogic;

WCLK : in std_ulogic;

WE : in std_ulogic);

end component;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

ram 16x1 3
RAM 16x1 (3)

begin

RAM_16X1_S_1: ram16x1s generic map (INIT => X"F0C1")

port map

(O=>DATA_OUT,

A0=>ADDR(0),

A1=>ADDR(1),

A2=>ADDR(2),

A3=>ADDR(3),

D=>DATA_IN,

WCLK=>CLK,

WE=>WE

);

end RAM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED_STRUCTURAL;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

ram 16x8 1
RAM 16x8 (1)

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all;

library UNISIM;

use UNISIM.all;

entity RAM_16X8_DISTRIBUTED is

port(

CLK : in STD_LOGIC;

WE : in STD_LOGIC;

ADDR : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 downto 0);

DATA_IN : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 downto 0);

DATA_OUT : out STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 downto 0)

);

end RAM_16X8_DISTRIBUTED;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

ram 16x8 2
RAM 16x8 (2)

architecture RAM_16X8_DISTRIBUTED_STRUCTURAL of RAM_16X8_DISTRIBUTED is

attribute INIT : string;

attribute INIT of RAM16X1_S_1: label is "0000";

-- Component declaration of the "ram16x1s(ram16x1s_v)" unit

-- File name contains "ram16x1s" entity: ./src/unisim_vital.vhd

component ram16x1s

generic(

INIT : BIT_VECTOR(15 downto 0) := X"0000");

port(

O : out std_ulogic;

A0 : in std_ulogic;

A1 : in std_ulogic;

A2 : in std_ulogic;

A3 : in std_ulogic;

D : in std_ulogic;

WCLK : in std_ulogic;

WE : in std_ulogic);

end component;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

ram 16x8 3
RAM 16x8 (3)

begin

GENERATE_MEMORY:

for I in 0 to 7 generate

RAM_16X1_S_1: ram16x1s generic map (INIT => X"0000")

port map

(O=>DATA_OUT(I),

A0=>ADDR(0),

A1=>ADDR(1),

A2=>ADDR(2),

A3=>ADDR(3),

D=>DATA_IN(I),

WCLK=>CLK,

WE=>WE

);

end generate;

end RAM_16X8_DISTRIBUTED_STRUCTURAL;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

rom 16x1 1
ROM 16x1 (1)

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all;

library UNISIM;

use UNISIM.all;

entity ROM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED is

port(

ADDR : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 downto 0);

DATA_OUT : out STD_LOGIC

);

end ROM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

rom 16x1 2
ROM 16x1 (2)

architecture ROM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED_STRUCTURAL of ROM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED is

attribute INIT : string;

attribute INIT of ROM16X1_S_1: label is "F0C1";

component ram16x1s

generic(

INIT : BIT_VECTOR(15 downto 0) := X"0000");

port(

O : out std_ulogic;

A0 : in std_ulogic;

A1 : in std_ulogic;

A2 : in std_ulogic;

A3 : in std_ulogic;

D : in std_ulogic;

WCLK : in std_ulogic;

WE : in std_ulogic);

end component;

signal Low : std_ulogic := ‘0’;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

rom 16x1 3
ROM 16x1 (3)

begin

ROM_16X1_S_1: ram16x1s generic map (INIT => X"F0C1")

port map

(O=>DATA_OUT,

A0=>ADDR(0),

A1=>ADDR(1),

A2=>ADDR(2),

A3=>ADDR(3),

D=>Low,

WCLK=>Low,

WE=>Low

);

end ROM_16X1_DISTRIBUTED_STRUCTURAL;

ECE 645 – Computer Arithmetic

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