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Metal Cutting Fluids Why do we need them?. Cooling Lubrication Also provides:- Swarf Flushing Corrosion Protection. Metalworking Fluids. Basic Principles of Metal CuttingFluids ; What they are & how to use them correctly. What are neat cutting oils?.

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metal cutting fluids why do we need them
Metal Cutting Fluids Why do we need them?
  • Cooling
  • Lubrication

Also provides:-

      • Swarf Flushing
      • Corrosion Protection
metalworking fluids

Metalworking Fluids

Basic Principles of Metal CuttingFluids ; What they are & how to use them correctly

what are neat cutting oils
What are neat cutting oils?

The performance of a neat cutting oil is influenced by 3 factors:-

  • Viscosity
  • Additives
  • Levels of additives
viscosity
Viscosity

Viscosity (at specific temperature)

Measured in centistokes (cSt @ 40c)

Range from 5 to 40 cSt

Water = 1cSt

Hydraulic = 32cSt

effects of viscosity
Effects of viscosity

Cooling &

Swarf Flushing

Lubricity

Viscosity Viscosity

lubricity additives
Lubricity additives
  • Base Mineral Oils

Highly refined oils of high, medium or low viscosity

  • Esters

Natural fats

Vegetable oils

Synthetic esters

slide7

Lubricity additives

  • Anti-wear additives

Typically phosphorous compounds or ZDDP

  • E.P. (extreme pressure ) additives

Chlorinated paraffins

Sulphur

Usually sulphurised esters or polysulphides

neat oils vs soluble coolants
Neat Oils vsSoluble Coolants

Cooling

Lubrication

Neat

Oils

Soluble

Coolants

what are coolants
What are coolants?

Lubricity

Additives

Add to

water

Emulsifiers &

detergents

Metalworking

coolant

or

emulsion

HOCUT ?

Corrosion

Inhibitors

Bio-

Protection

coolant jargon
Coolant jargon
  • Conventional soluble oil
  • Semi-synthetic
  • Synthetic
  • Extreme pressure
  • Biostable
factors affecting coolant life
Factors affecting Coolant life
  • Micro-Organisms
  • Tramp oil
  • Water Quality
  • System Design
  • People
micro organisms typically bacteria fungi
Micro-Organisms( typically bacteria / fungi)
  • Results in:-
      • Bad smells
      • Coolant separation
      • Corrosion
      • Increased disposal costs
common types of micro organisms
Common Types Of Micro -Organisms
  • Aerobic bacteria

-live in the presence of airAnaerobic bacteria

-live in the absence of air(bad eggs)

  • Yeasts/ Moulds /Fungi

-visible organism (rubber-like)

tramp oil
Tramp Oil
  • Oil from positive lubrication & leaks
  • Often resulting in:-
    • Bacteria attack
    • Coolant separation
    • Smoke and fume
    • High disposal cost
water quality
Water Quality
  • The presence of inorganic
  • salts in coolant make up
  • water will affect:-
      • Coolant stability
      • Foaming
water quality17
Water Quality

Ideal Water

Hardness =

100-200ppm.

Chloride zero

Sulphate zero

Low

salts

High

salts

Soap formation

Coolant instability

Corrosion

Bacterial attack

Excessive

foaming

Water hardness expressed as ppm. (parts per million )

as calcium carbonate.

coolant mixing
Coolant mixing
  • Always add oil to water(use a
  • mixing valve if possible)
  • Always mix coolant before
  • adding to the coolant sump
monitoring control
Monitoring & control

Always

maintain

concentration

between

specified limits.

slide20

Monitoring & control

  • Possible. skin irritation
  • Expensive (product waste)
  • Foaming

If concentration becomes too high.

monitoring control21
Monitoring & control
  • Bacterial attack
  • Corrosion
  • Increased disposal
  • Expensive

If concentration becomes too low.

monitoring and control
Monitoring and control
  • How is concentration measured?
  • Refractometer --- on-site
  • Titration --- on-site / lab.
  • Instrumentation --- lab.
how is condition measured ph readings
How is Condition Measured? pH readings

4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0

acidic

neutral

alkaline

soluble

oils

favours bacterial

growth

good corrosion

protection

acceptable to skin

monitoring corrosion protection
IP 125

Steel swarf on

a cast iron plate.

(overnight test)

IP 287

Cast iron swarf

on a filter paper.

(2 hour test )

Monitoring corrosion protection
soluble oil trials machine cleaning
Soluble Oil Trials Machine Cleaning

Antisep Biocidal Cleaner (A.B.C.) kills bacteria & dissolves dirt to ensure the new coolant has a good start.

  • 2-4% A.B.C. circulated with coolant for 24/48 hours
  • Empty & rinse
  • Refill with pre-mixed coolant at correct conc.
health and safety skincare
Health and safety Skincare
  • Handling concentrates
  • Concentration control
  • Hygiene
  • Proper use of skin creams
  • Good housekeeping
  • HSE guide to metalworking
environmental h s issues
Environmental & H&S Issues

There is an increasing demand for products that are ‘FREE’- from e.g.:-

  • Nitrite-free
  • Chlorine-free
  • PCA -free
  • Phenol-free
  • DEA-free
environmental h s issues29
Environmental &H&S Issues
  • Nitrite

Can react with amines to form ‘nitrosamines’ (carcinogenic).

  • DEA -diethanolamine

Can react with nitrogen from the air to form ‘nitrosamines.

Nitrite/DEA in fluids is a health and safety issue, not environmental

environmental h s issues30
Environmental & H&S Issues
  • Chlorine

Disposal by burning can form dioxin, a carcinogen

Special incinerators needed for safe disposal

Disposal cost is very high in Europe

Chlorine is an environmental issue, not health and safety

slide31

FLUIDCARE SERVICESHealth risks and MWF mists

  • HSE are demanding that metalworking fluids users should clearly demonstrate that they take every practicable step to control fluids, improve their condition and reduce exposure.
  • We recognise that the new guidance on health risks especially regarding asthma and respiratory diseases will pose problems for users. We offer a package of services aimed at helping customers identify the risks and effective measures of prevention and control.
  • Risk assessment
  • Fluids testing and bio-audits
  • Exposure monitoring
  • Atmosphere control
  • New Scandmist air filtration products are also available to remove both mist and bacteria from machine enclosures. Click on the download to learn more about the issues and to see Houghton products and services.
  • Visit www.hse.gov.uk/metalworking for further information.

More……………

Preventing respiratory diseases and metalworking fluids

ScandMist air filtration equipment

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