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KOREA. THE COLD WAR BEYOND EUROPE. THE KOREAN WAR 1950 –1953 What was the situation in Korea after the Second World War? 􀂾 America’s policy was to contain Communism (to stop it spreading). In 1949, China became Communist and it seemed like containment had failed in Asia.

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KOREA

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Korea

KOREA

THE COLD WAR BEYOND EUROPE


Korea

THE KOREAN WAR 1950 –1953

What was the situation in Korea after the Second World War?

􀂾 America’s policy was to contain Communism (to stop it spreading). In 1949, China became Communist and it seemed like containment had failed in Asia.

􀂾 Korea (China’s neighbor) used to be ruled by Japan, but at the end of World

War II, it was divided between the USA and the USSR along the 38th parallel

until a government could be elected to run the whole country.

􀂾 In August 1948, the Americans set up the Republic of Korea in the south, with Syngman Rhee as the first president. A month later, the Russians set up the

Korean People’s Democratic Republic in the north, ruled by Kim Sung II, a

Red Army captain. Each man claimed to represent the whole country.


Korea

Why did America get involved in the Korean War?

China had become Communist in 1949 and this really worried the Americans.

They were worried that Communism was spreading throughout the world, the existence of poverty and hardship seemed to confirm this.

The USA was keen that the rest of the Far East and South East Asia would not fall to the Communists as well. E.g. (countries like Malaya, Indonesia, Burma and Vietnam) Remember the Domino Theory.

Technically American troops weren’t fighting the Korean War. The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. As America was the most important and richest country in the U.N. it sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons.

In reality America dominated the U.N. and influenced its allies into supporting what it was doing in Korea.


The korean war

THE KOREAN WAR

A grief stricken American infantryman whose buddy has been killed in action is comforted by another soldier. In the background a corpsman methodically fills out casualty tags, Haktong-ni area, Korea. August 28, 1950. Sfc. Al Chang. (Army)


Korea

MAPS


Korea

TIMELINE

  • 1945 – Korea controlled by Japan

  • Soviets occupied the NORTH, America the SOUTH

  • The two halves were divided by the 38th Parallel

  • 1947 – elections held in the South supported by the US; The North had its own govt. backed by the Soviets

  • Each government claimed to be the rightful rulers of Korea

  • Each side was supported by the respective superpower even though they withdrew troops in 1948.


Korea

TIMELINE

  • 1949 – China became Communist – supported N Korea

  • 1950 – N Korea invaded S Korea

  • Sept 1950 – UN troops into S Korea at INCHON

  • N Koreans pushed back into N Korea

  • Oct 1950 Chinese invaded N Korea

  • UN troops pushed back to S Korea

  • 1950-51 – STALEMATE around 38th Parallel

  • April 1951 – MacArthur removed from position – replaced by General Omar Bradley


Korea

TIMELINE

  • Fighting continued until 1952

  • 1952 – Truman replaced by Eisenhower

  • 1953 – Stalin died

  • July 1953 - Armistice signed


The key players

Truman

Syngman Rhee – SK

UN

MacArthur

Bradley

Kim Sung II - NK

Mao Tse Tung

Stalin

The Key Players


Who won

WHO WON????

  • S. KOREA REMAINED ‘FREE’

  • Containment had worked

  • Korea badly damaged

  • The human cost

  • Still two separate states today

  • Still US troops in Korea


The cost in human life

THE COST IN HUMAN LIFE


By 1950 had containment worked

By 1950 had Containment worked???

  • Most Americans agreed with containing communism

  • Some wanted a more aggressive policy like MacArthur

  • More alliances were set up that were anti-Communist


Korea

What were the Lessons of the Korean War?

The USA learned that there were risks associated with the policy of containment.

Over one million people died in the war and what started out as confrontation with North Korea quickly got out of hand when China, the country with the worlds largest army, became involved.

America underestimated the Chinese. American troops ignored Chinese warnings and got too close to the Chinese boarder. In October 1950 200,000 Chinese troops joined the North Koreans.

These troops had been taught to hate the Americans and were prepared to die for Communism.

They also had modern weapons supplied by the USSR.


Korea

If America wanted to confront Communism she had to be careful. The American

General in charge in Korea, Douglas MacArthur, was sacked by President Truman because he not only wanted to free South Korea but he wanted to remove the communists from North Korea and then carry the war on into China!

He even asked for permission to use nuclear weapons, which was refused as this could easily have sparked a world war.

Even though America was by far the most powerful country in the world there were limits to its power.

Containment was a policy that had its limitations. It was one thing to

try and contain the spread of communism but when America attempted to go further and expel the Communists out of North Korea it was simply not prepared for the escalation that followed.


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