Hina Keval, University College London Human Centered Systems. “Watching the Watchers,” Operator Performance. Spring 2006 Seminar & Exhibition – “CCTV Imagine.” Liverpool Marriot South: Tuesday 4 th April 2006. Overview of talk. PhD Focus Describe research problem(s)
Spring 2006 Seminar & Exhibition – “CCTV Imagine.” Liverpool Marriot South: Tuesday 4th April 2006.
e.g. McCahill (2002) Gill (2005)
Privacy and data protection issues highlighted
My research takes user-centered approach to assessing effectiveness CCTVOverview of Research Focus
Questions: “It is usable? It is effective, efficient
& can we achieve high performance?”
(1) Modern Control Rooms
(2) Video Quality for post-recorded CCTV
Stakeholder Risk Analysis Approach:
Identify stakeholders, goals & tasks
assess risks and conflicts
-Public or Private?
-Pub/club, casino, hotel
-Local authority, private business
Analogue, digital, value, capabilities...
-What owners want to achieve
-What users required to do
Some observations permitted, 26 operators were interviewed:
- radio calls from various groups (businesses, LA, police force, PCSO’s)
- Respond to neighbourhood problems via telephone
- Responding to email enquiries from LA
- Monitoring CCTV camera activity
- Monitoring traffic enforcement cameras
- Information overload – too much going on, too many communication systems, noise, activity
13Barriers to task: Search and select camera
2. Map of Area i.e Camden
with Cameras No.
Early findings published:
H.U.Keval and M.A.Sasse. “Man or Gorilla? Performance Issues with CCTV
Technology in Security Control Rooms,” to be presented at the 16th World Congress
on Ergonomics Conference, Maastricht, Netherlands, International Ergonomics
Association, 10-14 July, 2006.
Future visits are planned – Open participation for control room managers
Please sign up!
Heathrow Control Room
Hendon Control Room
- Potential cognitive overload from radio
- Excessive audio input could be managed based on priority
- Confusion when various alarms ring, affecting task flow
2. DEVICE USAGE
Touch screen & mouse input used together for 1 system
- Bad ergonomics practice -> Health & safety issues
- Too many input devices
- Colour code devices? Use selection switch/pre-selects
3. EXCESSIVE SCREENS
- Too many screens
- Supervisors couldn’t see operators
- Overload of information input
-Merge systems? Use pre-selects
“If only 1% of the hardware budget is spent on requirements analysis & designing for usability, you can probably get 2x as much performance out of the system.” Prof Sasse (UCL).
Usability framework to improve
control room design
“Biggest problem in reality with
The CCTV footage we get is
reading faces & number plates.”
[Claire Summers Digital Video
Expert, Metropolitan Police labs
(1) Which compression schemes suitable?
i.e. MPEG-4 vs Wavelet
(2) At what compression level?
Aldridge J. . CCTV Operational Requirements Manual Version 3, Home Office, Police Scientific Development Branch (PSDB), report no. 19/94.
Gill, M, Allen, A, Jessiman, J, Swain, D, Hemming, M, Kara, D, and Little, R. , "Methods in assessing the impact of CCTV", report no 17, Home Office, Police Scientific Development Branch (PSDB), UK.
McCahill, M and C Norris. , "Literature Review (Working Paper No.2), in on the Threshold to Urban Panopticon? Analysing the Employment of CCTV in European Cities and Assessing Its Social and Political Impacts. Berlin: Technical University Berlin: European Commission.
Peter Fry, all control room managers so far participated academic advisors
(Prof. Angela Sasse) and also: