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MarcoPolo-R. Mission and Spacecraft Design. Lisa Peacocke – 19 th June 2013 IPPW 2013, San Jose, USA. MarcoPolo-R Mission. ESA Cosmic Vison M-class candidate Aim: To return a sample from a primitive near-Earth asteroid Currently Phase A, down-selection in Feb 2014

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Marcopolo r

MarcoPolo-R

Mission and Spacecraft Design

Lisa Peacocke – 19th June 2013

IPPW 2013, San Jose, USA


Marcopolo r mission

MarcoPolo-R Mission

  • ESA Cosmic Vison M-class candidate

    • Aim: To return a sample from a primitive near-Earth asteroid

    • Currently Phase A, down-selection in Feb 2014

    • Target is primitive asteroid 2008 EV5

  • MarcoPolo-R Assessment Study and CCN

    • Demonstrate technical and programmatic feasibility of the mission

    • Achieve a cost-effective and consolidated mission design

    • Astrium team kicked off in February 2012

      • Team of 18 engineers currently working on the study


Mission design

Mission Design

  • Launch on Soyuz-Fregat to 2008 EV5

    • Launch years 2022, 2023, 2024

    • All outward trajectories require an Earth GAM

    • Mission durations 4.5-6.5 years

  • 2008 EV5 DeltaV’s relatively low

    • Plasma propulsion architecture becomes feasible

    • Reduced return velocities for Earth re-entry

  • Other benefits of 2008 EV5

    • Smaller asteroid => less surface area to map

    • Less extreme orbit with more consistent Sun distance

    • Lower mass asteroid => lower gravity environment

1996 FG3 Primary and Secondary

2008 EV5


Science operations

Science Operations

  • Operations phases give ~140 GB data

    • 8 hours data downlink per day is feasible

    • ESA’s 35 m ground stations


Spacecraft design

Spacecraft Design


Spacecraft design1

Spacecraft Design

  • Mechanical

    • Solar Orbiter derived structure, modifications to support plasma thrusters

  • Propulsion

    • Three Snecma PPS1350 plasma thrusters (1.5 kW) with pointing mechanisms and PPUs – SMART 1

    • Two Xenon tanks and a high pressure regulator – BepiColombo MTM

    • Aeolus derived monopropellant system with 20N thrusters and hydrazine tanks

  • Thermal

    • ‘Standard’ design with heaters and MLI, detailed analysis ongoing

    • One panel with embedded heat pipes to aid PPU heat dissipation

  • AOCS

    • Off-the-shelf European IMU, star tracker, reaction wheels and sun sensors

  • Electrical

    • Two rotating solar array wings (7.5 m2 each) with drive mechanism – Sentinel 1 & 2

    • Lithium-ion battery and TerraSAR-X2-based 50V PCDU

    • Mars Express 1.6 m high gain antenna; MGA and LGAs with 80 W RF TWTA and deep space transponder – BepiColombo/Solar Orbiter/LISA Pathfinder

    • Gaia-based on-board computer with mass memory, and Solar Orbiter RIU


Spacecraft design2

Spacecraft Design


Payload accommodation

Payload Accommodation

  • All instruments mounted on same structure panel

    • Facilitates integration and mutual alignment

    • Accommodated inside spacecraft with views through cutouts


Key technologies

Key Technologies

  • Proximity GNC

    • Visual navigation uses Wide Angle Camera based on NPAL development and a Radar Altimeter

    • Simulations performed for descent/touchdown

  • Sample Acquisition, Transfer and Containment

    • Rotary brush sampling mechanism developed and tested

    • Touchdown damping from boom back-driven motor

      • Minimal forces at 10 cm/s

  • Earth Re-entry Capsule

    • Hard landing, no parachute or beacons/battery

    • Hayabusa-shape aeroshell


Proximity gnc aocs

Proximity GNC/AOCS


Touchdown dynamics

Touchdown Dynamics


Sampling and transfer

Sampling and Transfer


Sampling mechanism early testing

Sampling Mechanism Early Testing


Sampling mechanism

Sampling Mechanism


Earth re entry capsule

Earth Re-entry Capsule

  • Main requirements

    • Maximum entry velocity = 12 km/s

    • Maximum heat flux = 15 MW/m2

    • Maximum total pressure at stagnation point = 80 kPa

    • Fully passive, no parachute – cost and MSR demonstration

    • Ensure impact loads to sample are less than 800 g

    • No beacon or battery on board

    • Land at Woomera, Australia

  • Entry flight path angle of -10.8 degrees selected

    • Based on entry dispersion and appropriate landing ellipse

  • Hayabusaaeroshape selected

    • Stable and meets g-load, aerothermo requirements

    • θc= 45 deg, RN/D = 0.5


Earth re entry capsule1

Earth Re-entry Capsule

  • Design Properties

    • Diameter = 0.880 m, Mass = 45.6 kg, Centring = 28.75% D (Max ~33% D)

    • TPS: 56 mm ASTERM on frontshield (low density carbon phenolic, 280 kg/m3)

    • 11 mm NorcoatLiége on backcover (low density cork phenolic, 470 kg/m3)

    • 170 mm Aluminium foam crushable material, PU foam surrounds container


Earth re entry capsule2

Earth Re-entry Capsule

  • 2 rpm min spin-up


Earth re entry capsule3

Earth Re-entry Capsule

  • Landing ellipse is 68 km along longitudinal axis


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Phase A study finishing at the end of July

    • Preliminary Requirements Review in Oct/Nov

    • Selection will occur in February 2014

  • Astrium’s mission & spacecraft design is feasible

    • Key technologies are well into development

    • Extensive unit re-use or modification

    • Keeps development costs to a minimum, reduces cost risk

  • MarcoPolo-R is a very promising M-class mission candidate

    • New target has simplified engineering & design significantly

    • Serendipitous short mission trajectories – right time for asteroid sample return


Questions

Questions?

MarcoPolo-R Team:

Steve Kemble, Héloise Scheer, Jean-Marc Bouilly, Antoine Freycon, Steve Eckersley, Brian O’Sullivan, Jaime Reed, Martin Garland, Mark Watt, Marc Chapuy, Kev Tomkins, Howard Gray, Bill Bentall, Andrew Davies, Chris Chetwood, Andy Quinn, Alex Elliott, Mark Bonnar, David Agnolon, Remy Chalex, Jens Romstedt


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