Honors biology chapter 7 section 2 eukaryotic cell structure
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Honors Biology Chapter 7 Section 2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

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Honors biology chapter 7 section 2 eukaryotic cell structure

Honors BiologyChapter 7 Section 2Eukaryotic Cell Structure

SC B -2.2: Summarize the structures & functions of organelles found in a eukaryotic cell(including the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, vacuoles, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum [ER], golgi apparatus, cilia, flagella, cell membrane, nuclear membrane, and cytoplasm


Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm

Portion of the cell including everything inside cell membrane except nucleus

Cytosol: liquid portion of cytoplasm


Nucleus

NUCLEUS

  • Contains DNA with its coded instructions for making proteins so is the “control center”

  • most prominent structure seen with light microscope

  • Parts:

    • Nucleolus

    • Nuclear Envelope

    • Nuclear Pores


Nucleus1

NUCLEUS

  • Nucleolus

    • dense region in nucleus

    • produces subunits of ribosomes

  • Nuclear Envelope

    • dbl membrane surrounding nucleus

    • Outer layer contiguous with ER

  • Nuclear Pores

    • holes thru envelope

    • substances enter/leave nucleus thru these pores


Dna in nucleus

DNA in NUCLEUS

chromatin: DNA bound to proteins (called histones)

Chromatin condenses into chromosomes when cell starts cell division


Ribosomes

RIBOSOMES

  • assembly site for proteins

  • 2 subunits

    • Small

    • Large

    • made separately in nucleolus  exit nucleus thru nuclear pores  join when making proteins


Ribosomes1

RIBOSOMES

Considering the function of ribosomes…. What types of cells do you think would have an abundance of ribosomes in them?


Endoplasmic reticulum er

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Internal membrane system

2 types:

Smooth ER (SER)

Rough ER (RER)


Honors biology chapter 7 section 2 eukaryotic cell structure

SER

  • make membranes for

    • cell membrane

    • other organs

  • detoxifies

    • drugs

    • alcohol

    • poisons


Honors biology chapter 7 section 2 eukaryotic cell structure

SER

So… considering the functions of SER……what types of cells can you predict might have an abundance of SER?


Honors biology chapter 7 section 2 eukaryotic cell structure

RER

“rough” because outer membrane is studded with ribosomes

proteins made & released into RER where they are modified (sugar groups added making a glycoprotein)

most of proteins made here are destined for export out of cell


Honors biology chapter 7 section 2 eukaryotic cell structure

RER

What type of cell do you think would have lots of RER?


Golgi apparatus

GOLGI APPARATUS

stack of curved membranes

usually found between ER and cell membrane

Function: modify, sort, & package material received from ER  storage in cell or export out of cell


Golgi

GOLGI


Golgi1

GOLGI

In what types of cells do you think there would be an abundance of Golgi bodies?


Lysosomes

LYSOSOMES

  • membrane bound vesicle that has enzymes inside

  • Function: breakdown of macromolecules into smaller molecules which are then recycled in cytoplasm

    • Where do these macromolecules come from?


Lysosomes1

Lysosomes

  • Where do lysosomes get the macromolecules?

    • worn out organelles

    • engulfed bacteria or cell debris


Vacuoles

VACUOLES

membrane bounded storage facility

Protists (one-celled organisms) put food particles in a food vacuole until need the nutrients

plant cells have distinctive large central vacuole that stores water and some nutrients and helps plant maintain turgor when all cells have a filled central vacuole


Vacuoles1

Vacuoles


Food vacuole

Food Vacuole


Mitochondria

MITOCHONDRIA

  • convert chemical energy in sugars ATP (high energy molecule that temporarily stores energy in form cells can use) = cellular respiration

  • dbl membrane

    • intermembrane space

    • cristae : folds of inner membrane

    • matrix: inside folds of cristae

  • has own DNA (maternal) & divides on own


Mitochondria1

Mitochondria


Mitochondria2

Mitochondria


Chloroplasts

CHLOROPLASTS

  • in plant cells

  • capture energy in sunlight chemical energy (photosynthesis)

  • dbl membrane

    • intermembrane space

    • inner membrane folds into thylakoid discs

    • stack of discs = granum

    • space around grana = stroma

  • contain chlorophyll

  • + DNA & divides on own


Chloroplasts1

Chloroplasts


Chloroplasts2

Chloroplasts


Chloroplasts3

Chloroplasts


Cytoskeleton

CYTOSKELETON

  • Function:

    • internal structure & support

    • movement of organelles & chromosomes

    • anchors organelles and cells

      Made of proteins

      3 types:

    • microfilaments

    • intermediate filaments

    • microtubules


Microfilaments

MICROFILAMENTS

made of actin

supports cell shape

used by protist for movement

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter4/animation_-_cytoplasmic_streaming.html


Microfilaments1

Microfilaments


Intermediate filaments

Intermediate Filaments

used to move organelles around cytoplasm


Microtubules

MICROTUBULES

largest, strongest

shaped like hollow straws with units that spontaneously come together or fall apart

used to move organelles, chromosomes

made in centrosomes


Cell analogy

CELL ANALOGY

  • Eukaryotic cells are like a city:

    • each part has a job to be done

    • Nucleus : mayor

    • Mitochondria: power plant

    • Lysosomes: city dump and recycling center

    • SER: hospital

    • Golgi: UPS store

    • Cytoskeleton: roads & bridges

    • Cell Membrane: border patrol @ city limits


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