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LeanSigma ® Facilitator Training. Module 6 – Identify the Value Stream. Topics. Value stream definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Value stream maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

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Leansigma facilitator training

LeanSigma® Facilitator Training

Module 6 – Identify the Value Stream


Topics
Topics

Value stream definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Value stream maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

SIPOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Process Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Swim lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Time studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Spaghetti Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34



The value stream is simply the process we use to deliver value to our customers
The value stream is simply the process we use to deliver value to our customers.

The result or output (Y) is a function of the inputs (x).

Process or Transformation f(x)

Previous

process

inputs: x’s

Output: Y = f(x)

Process Inputs: x’s

  • A process is a series of activities that transform a set of inputs into a specific set of outputs. Everything we do is a process. (e.g. planning a vacation, building a report, paying taxes)

  • Process Equation: Y = f(x)


Lean sigma defines successful processes from the customer s perspective
Lean Sigma defines successful processes from the customer’s perspective.

  • A LeanSigma® Process delivers:

    • What the customer needs and wants

    • In the place they want

    • At the exact time they want it

    • While using the minimum resources – people, equipment, space, technology, materials, etc.

To understand customers’ expectations about process results, we must view our processes the same way the customer views them.

Visualizing the process is especially important for a service business like IMS where much of the work is electronic.


LeanSigma customer’s perspective.® has several tools to depict how value is delivered today and how it can be delivered in the future.

Value Stream Map

SIPOC

Process Hierarchy

Swim lane

Spaghetti Diagram


What is a value stream
What is a Value Stream? customer’s perspective.

  • All actions--both value-creating and wasteful--are present to bring a service from customer request to delivery:

    • Starts and ends with customer

    • Series of business processes linked together

    • Frequently shown with key information such as number of employees, cycle time, etc.


Value streams show the end to end process not a functional view

Customer View customer’s perspective.of the Value Stream

B

A

C

Credit Card Processing

Embossing

Our

Traditional View

View The Process the Same As the Customer Does

Value Streams show the end-to-end process, not a functional view.

“Whenever there is a product or service for a customer, there is a value stream. The challenge lies in seeing it.”

Value Stream vs. Traditional View


Value stream maps help us see waste and opportunity
Value Stream Maps help us see waste and opportunity. customer’s perspective.

  • A Value Stream is the set of all actions (both value added and non-value added) that brings a specific product or service from initiation through to the customer.

  • What to Look for

  • Process Flows

  • Material Flows

  • Information Flows

  • Time

  • Waste


Value stream example insurance
Value Stream Example – Insurance customer’s perspective.


Value stream map symbols
Value Stream Map Symbols customer’s perspective.


Document key process information in the data box

Bridging customer’s perspective.

Document key process information in the data box.

Ex.

Create data blocks for appropriate processes

Collect data through observations and research


Why value stream mapping
Why Value Stream Mapping? customer’s perspective.

Value stream maps are used in opportunity assessments to diagnose potential problems. As a result of the opportunity assessment, you may identify you need kaizens, projects, etc.

It helps you visualize the process flow.

Mapping helps you see the sources of waste.

It forms the basis of an implementation plan by helping you diagnose areas to review further. Value stream maps become the blueprint for improvement.

More useful than quantitative tools alone


Simple guidelines will help you build a value stream map
Simple guidelines will help you build a value stream map. customer’s perspective.

Create macro level flow of the process including incoming supplies, customer requests and outbound products showing key functions and high-level activities

Connect with arrows

Add key details to the data box for each key process step such as the information flow, number of employees, cost, inventory, cycle time, etc.

Calculate end-to-end cycle time and wait times between steps

Diagnose potential problems and opportunities to investigate further using the information clouds

Create a list of actions to pursue the observations in #5


Clouds on the value stream map show problems opportunities
Clouds on the value stream map show problems/ opportunities. customer’s perspective.

Outdated technology is causing delays

65% of all cycle time is in one step

20% of FTEs not trained properly

32% of inputs from 3rd party require rework

  • When identifying opportunities, concentrate on the 4 M’s

    • Man

    • Machine

    • Material

    • Method


Building a value stream map insurance
Building a value stream map - Insurance customer’s perspective.

Steps 1 – 2

Step 5

Inventory build-up

Step 3

High wait time

Little value add

25% defects

High CT variation

Step 4


LeanSigma customer’s perspective.® has several tools to depict how value is delivered today and how it can be delivered in the future.

Value Stream Map

SIPOC

Process Hierarchy

Swim lane

Spaghetti Diagram


Sipoc maps depict the 5 9 high level activities in any process
SIPOC maps depict the 5 – 9 high-level activities in any process.

  • The acronym stands for:Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs and Customers

  • SIPOCs are very effective process maps:

    • To provide context and let everyone agree to high-level steps before you do more detailed mapping.

    • To make sure you’re aware of who to engage in discussions about the process

    • To create a checklist of what comes in to a process and what needs to come out

    • To understand what data you may need to collect to understand the process better


SIPOC gives context to further process mapping. process.

Suppliers

Inputs

Process

Outputs

Customers

External Clients

Calc. Analyst

MMA

See Below

Raw Data

Invoice

Membership list Contract

Client Data

Formulary

Calc data

Reports

  • Clients

  • Third Parties

The suggested order to fill in the table is P-O-C-I-S

Receive Data

Check-in data

Screen Data

Validate

Perform QA


LeanSigma process. ® has several tools to depict how value is delivered today and can be delivered in the future.

Value Stream Map

SIPOC

Process Hierarchy

Swim lane

Spaghetti Diagram


Process hierarchies list high level processes and one more level of process decomposition
Process hierarchies list high-level processes and one more level of process decomposition.

Like the SIPOC, the process hierarchy shows the top 5 – 9 major activities in any process.

In addition, it shows 5 – 9 sub-activities under each of the major activities.

These maps can show much activity on one page.

For example, 90% of IMS’ activities are captured in 6 or 7 process hierarchy maps. We map financials and TSP tracking to these maps.

Limitation: They don’t show who is doing the activities.


IMS has several standard process hierarchy maps. level of process decomposition.


LeanSigma level of process decomposition.® has several tools to depict how value is delivered today and how it can be delivered in the future.

Value Stream Map

SIPOC

Process Hierarchy

Swim lane

Spaghetti Diagram


Swim lanes are the most powerful of the process mapping tools
Swim lanes are the most powerful of the process mapping tools.

Each player in the process has a unique “lane” in the map.

Activities are at a detailed level where re-engineering discussions can occur.

The “TIM WOOD” wastes such as delays, over-processing, transportation, etc. become very visible.

People building a swim lane map together begin to have a common understanding of the process and its issues.

All kaizen events use swim lanes.


Swim lane example

Mail Room Process tools.

Bring cages

Start

into mailroom

Mail Courier

Unload bins

from cages

Put envelopes

Slice thin &

in trays & pull

small envelopes

out label sheets

in machine

Sort the thicks

w/ machine count

Sorter

from the thins

& the smalls

Count thick

envelopes, then

put envelopes

label sheets &

on shelf

stack in trays

Open thick envelopes

manually .

Extract claims

& sort by

Pick up tray

Put claims in trays by claim type

Mail Extractor

claim type

from shelf,

return to desk

Extract claims from

Thin envelopes

& sort by

claim type

Lead

Pick up trays & place on cart

QC each tray

take trays to input prep

End

Swim lane example

Value Add

Non-Value Add

No

Yes

OK?


Swim lanes use standard symbols
Swim lanes use standard symbols. tools.

Issue Symbols

Flow Chart Symbols

D

30 min

Delays

Trigger – causes a process to begin

Result

Decision point

Activity – always in verb-noun format (Receive data, validate opportunity)

Loopbacks

yes

Hand offs

no

Data

Stored information


A few guidelines will help you build a good map
A few guidelines will help you build a good map. tools.

Clarify scope (process start and end) before you begin

List roles in lanes by order of appearance

Map at a level of detail necessary to uncover the issues – don’t bundle steps together

Use verb – noun language for clarity (e.g. Open envelope, Reformat data, etc.)

Don’t use previous maps – the value of building the map is creating common understanding (and the old map is probably outdated)

Be patient – it will take time to find the “right” level of detail

Keep everyone engaged

Let the participants build the map – intervene if the meaning is unclear or they have difficulty


Dramatic improvements are common in the future state
Dramatic improvements are common in the future state. tools.

Future State Process

24 Steps 5 Handoffs 2 Loopbacks 8 Value-added steps

Current State Process

47 Steps 11 Handoffs 5 Loopbacks 11 Value-added steps


Adding time estimates to your map will measure improvement
Adding time estimates to your map will measure improvement.

D = 5-20 hrs

D = 2-25 hrs

Pick up tray from shelf, return to desk

  • Open thick envelopes

  • Extract claims & sort

  • Put claims in tray by type

  • Put trays on cart

  • QC each tray

Place envelopes & count data in trays on shelf

Deliver trays to input prep

Bring in mail, sort envelopes

Slice thin envelopes in machine

Count thick envelopes, label, stack


Ims often uses ranges and estimates for cycle time due to process variation
IMS often uses ranges and estimates for cycle time due to process variation.

  • Have multiple people compile estimates

  • Ask people to validate estimates later

  • Classify similar work into categories to make estimates

    Example: Client Query Resolution:

    • Resolve a simple query = 5 min.

    • Resolve a moderate query = 2 days

    • Resolve a complex query = 10 days

  • It is sometimes helpful to group a subset(s) of tasks and estimate cycle time for the task grouping rather than for each individual task.

  • Estimate cycle time for one unit of work only (one report, one query, etc.)


  • In some cases stop watch observations can add precision to estimates
    In some cases, stop watch observations can add precision to estimates.

    Goal: Understand the lowest repeatable time to determine expected cycle time (effort to complete work)

    Use a Time observation form to gain understanding of how long a process and its steps take to complete

    Observe the operation

    Identify task elements and enteron the Time observation form

    Time the process and calculateelement times and cycle time



    Time observation form example

    Process: estimates.

    Observer:

    Date:

    Step

    Operation

    Task

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    Remarks

    #

    Element

    Time

    Stand Up From

    08

    53

    38

    23

    13

    54

    42

    29

    17

    7’02

    51

    1

    7

    Chair

    8

    7

    8

    7

    9

    6

    7

    7

    8

    8

    9

    18

    1’04

    48

    34

    23

    4’06

    53

    40

    27

    13

    8’01

    2

    Walk to Easel

    10

    10

    11

    10

    11

    10

    12

    11

    11

    10

    11

    10

    Pick Up Marker

    20

    06

    51

    37

    25

    09

    55

    43

    29

    16

    04

    3

    3

    Element Times

    & Remove Cap

    2

    2

    3

    3

    2

    3

    2

    3

    2

    3

    3

    30

    15

    2’01

    48

    34

    M

    5’05

    53

    38

    27

    15

    4

    Write on Board

    10

    10

    9

    10

    11

    9

    10

    10

    9

    11

    11

    Replace Cap &

    33

    18

    05

    51

    37

    23

    09

    56

    41

    31

    18

    Missed Observation

    5

    3

    Put Down Marker

    3

    3

    4

    3

    3

    4

    3

    3

    4

    3

    Walk Back to

    43

    27

    14

    3’01

    46

    32

    19

    6’06

    52

    40

    28

    6

    9

    Chair

    10

    9

    9

    10

    9

    9

    10

    10

    11

    9

    10

    46

    30

    16

    04

    48

    35

    22

    09

    54

    42

    31

    Lowest Repeatable

    7

    Sit Down

    2

    3

    3

    2

    3

    2

    3

    3

    3

    2

    2

    3

    Lowest repeatable

    44

    44

    46

    46

    48

    47

    47

    45

    48

    49

    44

    Time for 1 Cycle

    cycle time

    Time Observation Form Example


    LeanSigma estimates.® has several tools to depict how value is delivered today and how it can be delivered in the future.

    Value Stream Map

    SIPOC

    Process Hierarchy

    Swim lane

    Spaghetti Diagram


    Spaghetti maps show the physical flow of work in an office or between office locations

    Table estimates.

    Table

    Table

    Table

    Table

    Spaghetti maps show the physical flow of work in an office or between office locations.

    • Step

    • Cages into mail room

    • Unload bins

    • Sort thicks from thins

    • Slice thins in machine then place in tray, count & label thicks

    • Put all on shelf

    • Get mail to extract

    • Open thicks by hand & sort claims

    • Extract thins & sort claims

    • Put claims in trays

    • Put trays on cart

    • Check trays

    • Take trays to input

    • Problems

    • 4. Sometimes machine does not slice envelope fully open; sometimes not labeled

    • 7. Claims not always sorted correctly

    • 8. Claims not always sorted correctly


    Spaghetti maps make flow and waste visible
    Spaghetti maps make flow and waste visible. estimates.

    Shows material flow

    Shows associate flow

    Aids in identifying wasteful activities by viewing it from the basis of physical layout

    Shows what is actually happening versus what people think happens

    Familiarizes everyone with the process

    Particularly helpful for physical flows or system flows


    Back to ez money
    Back to EZ Money… estimates.

    • Let’s create a SIPOC together for EZ Money.

    • Then, create a Swim lane diagram for EZ Money in your Round 2 teams.

    • Identify the value add (VA), business non-value added (BNVA) and Non value added (NVA) steps in the process map.

    • Fill out a table with information for your current state:


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