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Dose Distribution and Scatter Analysis. Phantoms Depth Dose Distribution Percentage Depth Dose Tissue-Air Ratio Scatter-Air Ratio. Phantoms.

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Dose distribution and scatter analysis
Dose Distribution and Scatter Analysis

  • Phantoms

  • Depth Dose Distribution

  • Percentage Depth Dose

  • Tissue-Air Ratio

  • Scatter-Air Ratio


Phantoms
Phantoms

  • Water phantom: closely approximates the radiation absorption and scattering properties of muscle and other soft tissues; universally available with reproducible


Phantoms1
PHANTOMS

  • Basic dose distribution data are usually measured in awater phantom, which closely approximates the radiation absorption and scattering properties of muscle and other soft tissue

  • Another reason for the choice of water as a phantom material is that it isuniversally available with reproducible radiation properties.


Phantoms2
PHANTOMS

  • Solid dry phantoms

    • tissue or water equivalent, it must have the same

      • effective atomic number

      • number of electrons per gram

      • mass density

    • For megavoltage photon beams in the clinical range, the necessary condition for water equivalence

      • same electron density (number of electrons per cubic centimeter)

Compton effect is the main interaction


Solid dry phantoms
Solid dry phantoms


Solid dry slab phantoms
Solid dry (Slab) phantoms


Alderson rando phantom
Alderson Rando Phantom

  • anthropomorphic phantom

    • Frequently used for clinical dosimetry

    • Incorporates materials to simulate various body tissues, muscle, bone, lung, and air cavities


Rando phantom
RANDO phantom

CT slice

through lung

Head with

TLD holes


Depth dose distribution
Depth Dose Distribution

  • The absorbed dose in the patient varies with depth

  • The variation depends on depth, field size, distance from source, beam energy and beam collimation

  • Percentage depth dose, tissue-air ratios, tissue-phantom ratios and tissue-maximum ratios---measurements made in water phantoms using small ionization chambers


Percentage depth dose

collimator

surface

d0

D d0

d

D d

phantom

Percentage Depth Dose

  • Absorbed dose at any depth: d

  • Absorbed dose at a fixed reference depth: d0


Percentage depth dose1
PERCENTAGE DEPTH DOSE

  • For orthovoltage (up to about 400 kVp) and lower-energy x-rays, the reference depth is usually the surface (do = 0).

  • For higher energies, the reference depth is taken at the position of the peak absorbed dose (do = dm).


Percentage depth dose2

collimator

surface

dm

D max

d

D d

phantom

Percentage Depth Dose

  • For higher energies, the reference depth is at the peak absorbed dose ( d 0= d m)

  • D max : maximumdose, the dose maximum,the given dose


Percentage depth dose3
Percentage Depth Dose

  • (a)Dependence on beam quality and depth

  • (b)Effect of field size and shape

  • (c)Dependence on SSD


Percentage depth dose a dependence on beam quality and depth
Percentage Depth Dose(a)Dependence on beam quality and depth

  • Kerma—

    (1) kinetic energy released per mass in the medium;

    (2) the energy transferred from photons to directly ionizing electron;

    (3) maximum at the surface and decreases with depth due to decreased in the photon energy fluence;

    (4) the production of electrons also decreases with depth


Percentage depth dose a dependence on beam quality and depth1
Percentage Depth Dose(a)Dependence on beam quality and depth

  • Absorbed dose:

  • (1) depends on the electron fluence;

  • (2) high-speed electrons are ejected from the surface and subsequent layers;

  • (3) theses electrons deposit their energy a significant distance away from their site of origin



Percentage depth dose b effect of field size and shape
Percentage Depth Dose quality photon beams(b)Effect of field size and shape

  • Geometrical field size: the projection, on a plane perpendicular to the beam axis, of the distal end of the collimator as seen from the front center of the source

  • Dosimetric ( Physical ) field size: the distance intercepted by a given isodose curve (usually 50% isodose ) on a plane perpendicular to the beam axis


Pdd effect of field size and shape
PDD quality photon beams - Effect of Field Size and Shape

  • Field size

    • Geometrical

    • Dosimetrical or physical

SAD

FS


Percentage depth dose b effect of field size and shape1

Scatter dose quality photon beams

Dmax

Dd

Percentage Depth Dose(b)Effect of field size and shape

  • As the field size is increased, the contribution of the scattered radiation to the absorbed dose increases

  • This increase in scattered dose is greater at larger depths than at the depth of D max , the percent depth dose increases with increasing field size


Percentage depth dose b effect of field size and shape2
Percentage Depth Dose quality photon beams(b)Effect of field size and shape

  • Depends on beam quality

  • The scattering probability or cross-section decreases with energy increase and the higher-energy photons are scattered more predominantly in the forward direction, the field size dependence of PDD is less pronounced for the higher-energy than for the lower-energy beams


Percentage depth dose b effect of field size and shape3
Percentage Depth Dose quality photon beams(b)Effect of field size and shape

  • PDD data for radiotherapy beams are usually tabulated for square fields

  • In clinical practice require rectangular and irregularly shaped fields

  • A system of equating square fields to different field shapes is required: equivalent square

  • Quick calculation of the equivalent


Square field
square field quality photon beams

rectangular field

c

A

B

c

A x B

c = 2 x

A + B


Percentage depth dose b effect of field size and shape4

a quality photon beams

b

Percentage Depth Dose(b)Effect of field size and shape

  • Quick calculation of the equivalent field parameters: for rectangular fields

  • For square fields, since a = b,

  • the side of an equivalent square of a rectangular field is


Percentage depth dose 3 b effect of field size and shape

a quality photon beams

b

Percentage Depth Dose(3)--(b)Effect of field size and shape

  • Equivalent circle has the same area as the equivalent square

r


Percentage depth dose c dependence on ssd
Percentage Depth Dose quality photon beams(c) dependence on SSD

  • Photon fluence emitted by a point source of radiation varies inversely as a square of the distance from the source

  • The actual dose rate at a point decreases with increase in distance from the source, the percent depth dose, which is a relative dose, increases with SSD

  • Mayneord F factor


Pdd dependence on source surface distance

Dose rate in free space from a point source varies inversely as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

scattering material in the beam may cause deviation from the inverse square law.

PDD increases with SSD

IVSL

SSD’

SSD

dm

dm

d

d

PDD - Dependence on Source-Surface Distance


Percentage Depth Dose as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

(c) dependence on SSD

F1+dm

F2+dm

F1+d

F2+d

Fig. 9.5 Plot of relative dose rate as inverse square law function of distance from a point source. Reference distance = 80 cm


f1 as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

f2

r

dm

r

d

dm

d


f1 as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

r

dm

d

dm

d

f2

r

  • PDD increases with SSD

    • the Mayneord F Factor ( without considering changes in scattering )


Pdd dependence on source surface distance1
PDD as the square of the distance. (IVSL) - Dependence on Source-Surface Distance

  • PDD increases with SSD


Example as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

The PDD for a 15×15 field size, 10-cm depth, and 80-cm SSD is 58.4-Gy (C0-60 Beam).

Find the PDD for the same field size and depth for a 100-cm SSD

Assuming dm=0.5-cm for (C0-60 Gamma Rays).

F=1.043

P= 58.4*1.043=60.9


Percentage depth dose c dependence on ssd1
Percentage Depth Dose as the square of the distance. (IVSL)(c) dependence on SSD

  • Under extreme conditions such as lower energy, large field (the proportion of scattered radiation is relatively greater), large depth, and large SSD, the Mayneord F factor is significant errors

  • In general, the Mayneord F factor overestimates the increase in PDD with increase in SSD


Pdd dependence on source surface distance2
PDD as the square of the distance. (IVSL) - Dependence on Source-Surface Distance

  • PDD increases with SSD

    • the Mayneord F Factor

      • works reasonably well for small fields since the scattering is minimal under these conditions.

      • However, the method can give rise to significant errors under extreme conditions such aslower energy, large field, large depth, and large SSD change.


Tissue air ratio
Tissue-Air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

  • The ratio of the dose ( D d) at a given point in the phantom to the dose in free space ( D f s )

  • TAR depends on depth d and field size rd at the depth:

(BSF)

Equilibrium mass

phantom

d

rd

rd

Dd

D f s


Tissue air ratio a effect of distance
Tissue-Air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)( a ) Effect of Distance

  • Independent of the distance from the source

  • The TAR represents modification of the dose at a point owing only to attenuation and scattering of the beam in the phantom compared with the dose at the same point in the miniphantom ( or equilibrium phantom ) placed in free air


Tissue air ratio b variation with energy depth and field size
Tissue-Air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)( b ) Variation with energy, depth, and field size

  • For the megavoltage beams, the TAR builds up to a maximum at the d m and then decreases with depth

  • As the field size is increased, the scattered component of the dose increases and the variation of TAR with depth becomes more complex


Tissue air ratio b variation with energy depth and field size bsf
Tissue-Air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)( b ) Variation with energy, depth, and field size: BSF

  • Backscatter factor (BSF) depends only on the beam quality and field size

  • Above 8 MV, the scatter at the depth of Dmax becomes negligibly small and the BSF approaches its minimum value of unity



The meaning of backscatter factor
The meaning of Backscatter factor as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

  • For example, BSF for a 10x10 cm field for 60Co is 1.036 means that D max will be 3.6% higher than the dose in free space

  • This increase in dose is the result of radiation scatter reaching the point of D max from the overlying and underlying tissues


Tissue-Air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

( c ) relationship between TAR and PDD


Tissue-Air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

( c ) relationship between TAR and PDD-- Conversion of PDD from one SSD to another : The TAR method

Burns’s equation:


Tissue-Air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

( d ) calculation of dose in rotation therapy

d=16.6


Scatter air ratio sar

Equilibrium mass as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

phantom

d

rd

rd

Dd

D f s

Scatter-Air Ratio(SAR)

  • Calculating scattered dose in the medium

  • The ratio of the scattered dose at a given point in the phantom to the dose in free space at the same point

  • TAR(d,0): the primary component of the beam


Scatter air ratio dose calculation in irregular fields clarkson s method

Average tissue-air ratio as the square of the distance. (IVSL)

Average scatter-air ratio

TAR ( 0 ) = tissue-air ratio for 0 x 0 field

Scatter-Air Ratio--Dose calculation in irregular fields: Clarkson’s Method

Based on the principle that the scattered component of the depth dose can be calculated separately from the primary component


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