The rise of political extremism
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The Rise of Political Extremism. Problems Mussolini Stalin Franco Hitler Culture. The Search for Stability. League of Nations French Demands Reparations- 132 bil. Marks ($33 bil. US) Unable to pay Ruhr Valley occupation German Inflation Dawes Plan- loans and flexible payments

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The rise of political extremism

The Rise of PoliticalExtremism

Problems

Mussolini

Stalin

Franco

Hitler

Culture


The search for stability
The Search for Stability

League of Nations

French Demands

  • Reparations- 132 bil. Marks ($33 bil. US)

  • Unable to pay

  • Ruhr Valley occupation

    German Inflation

  • Dawes Plan- loans and flexible payments

    Treaty of Locarno

  • Guaranteed Germany’s borders

  • Kellogg-Briand pact- renounced war


The great depression
The Great Depression

Causes:

  • Individual national economies

  • Farm overproduction

  • US Stock Market

    • Loans to Germany

    • Investment in Europe

Responses

  • Unemployment

    • England- 25%

    • Germany- 40%

  • Increase in government involvement in the economy

  • Renewed interest in Marxism

  • Willingness of people to follow leaders who can offer solutions


The rise of dictators
The Rise of Dictators

Totalitarian State- a government that wants to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of the people

Wanted to conquer the hearts and minds of the people

  • Propaganda

  • Modern communications

    Single leader

  • No individual freedom

  • Collective will of the masses


Italy benito mussolini il duce
Italy- Benito Mussolini “Il Duce”

Fascism-  a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition

  • Opposed communists- “Blackshirts”

  • Patriotic/nationalistic appeal

  • Secret Police- OVRA

  • Women

  • Catholic Church


Soviet union joseph stalin
Soviet Union- Joseph Stalin

Power struggle in Politburo

  • Trotsky vs Stalin

  • Industrialization and worldwide communist revolution vs strong socialist state and continuation of Lenin’s New Economic Policy

  • Stalin was general secretary of the Communist Party

    • He used this position to gain complete control

    • Ran out all of the old Bolsheviks including Trotsky


Stalin s leadership
Stalin’s Leadership

Five-Year Plans

  • Goals

    • Transform Russia from agricultural to industrial

    • Maximum production of goods

  • Results

    • Huge increase in urban population

    • Very poor conditions

    • Strict laws

  • Collectivization- private farms eliminated; instead, the government owned all of the land while the peasants worked it


Stalin s leadership con t
Stalin’s Leadership, con’t

Costs of the Programs

  • 10 million peasants died in famines

    • Stalin allowed workers one small garden to own

  • Strengthened his control

    • People who resisted were sent to forced labor camps

    • Great Purge- eliminated the Old Bolsheviks

      • 8 million Russians arrested


Hitler
Hitler

Became leader of the German Workers’ Party

  • Changed the name to National Socialist German Workers’ Party- Nazi for short

    Led Beer Hall Putsch- failed

  • In jail, wrote Mein Kampf

    • German nationalism

    • Anti-Semitism

    • Social Darwinism


Nazism
Nazism

Achieved power through democracy

Became the biggest party in the Reichstag

Great Depression

  • National pride/honor

  • Traditional militarism

    Enabling Act- allowed the gov’t to ignore the constitution for four years to deal with crisis

    Hitler as Fuhrer


The nazi state
The Nazi State

Totalitarian

Aryan (misused term)

Opposition eliminated

Heinrich Himmler- SS

  • Terror and ideology

    Massive rearmament

    Spectacles

    Women’s roles

    Anti-Semitic policies

  • Nuremburg Laws

  • Kristallnacht


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