The rise of political extremism
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The Rise of Political Extremism. Problems Mussolini Stalin Franco Hitler Culture. The Search for Stability. League of Nations French Demands Reparations- 132 bil. Marks ($33 bil. US) Unable to pay Ruhr Valley occupation German Inflation Dawes Plan- loans and flexible payments

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The Rise of Political Extremism

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The Rise of PoliticalExtremism

Problems

Mussolini

Stalin

Franco

Hitler

Culture


The Search for Stability

League of Nations

French Demands

  • Reparations- 132 bil. Marks ($33 bil. US)

  • Unable to pay

  • Ruhr Valley occupation

    German Inflation

  • Dawes Plan- loans and flexible payments

    Treaty of Locarno

  • Guaranteed Germany’s borders

  • Kellogg-Briand pact- renounced war


The Great Depression

Causes:

  • Individual national economies

  • Farm overproduction

  • US Stock Market

    • Loans to Germany

    • Investment in Europe

Responses

  • Unemployment

    • England- 25%

    • Germany- 40%

  • Increase in government involvement in the economy

  • Renewed interest in Marxism

  • Willingness of people to follow leaders who can offer solutions


The Rise of Dictators

Totalitarian State- a government that wants to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of the people

Wanted to conquer the hearts and minds of the people

  • Propaganda

  • Modern communications

    Single leader

  • No individual freedom

  • Collective will of the masses


Italy- Benito Mussolini “Il Duce”

Fascism-  a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition

  • Opposed communists- “Blackshirts”

  • Patriotic/nationalistic appeal

  • Secret Police- OVRA

  • Women

  • Catholic Church


Soviet Union- Joseph Stalin

Power struggle in Politburo

  • Trotsky vs Stalin

  • Industrialization and worldwide communist revolution vs strong socialist state and continuation of Lenin’s New Economic Policy

  • Stalin was general secretary of the Communist Party

    • He used this position to gain complete control

    • Ran out all of the old Bolsheviks including Trotsky


Stalin’s Leadership

Five-Year Plans

  • Goals

    • Transform Russia from agricultural to industrial

    • Maximum production of goods

  • Results

    • Huge increase in urban population

    • Very poor conditions

    • Strict laws

  • Collectivization- private farms eliminated; instead, the government owned all of the land while the peasants worked it


Stalin’s Leadership, con’t

Costs of the Programs

  • 10 million peasants died in famines

    • Stalin allowed workers one small garden to own

  • Strengthened his control

    • People who resisted were sent to forced labor camps

    • Great Purge- eliminated the Old Bolsheviks

      • 8 million Russians arrested


Hitler

Became leader of the German Workers’ Party

  • Changed the name to National Socialist German Workers’ Party- Nazi for short

    Led Beer Hall Putsch- failed

  • In jail, wrote Mein Kampf

    • German nationalism

    • Anti-Semitism

    • Social Darwinism


Nazism

Achieved power through democracy

Became the biggest party in the Reichstag

Great Depression

  • National pride/honor

  • Traditional militarism

    Enabling Act- allowed the gov’t to ignore the constitution for four years to deal with crisis

    Hitler as Fuhrer


The Nazi State

Totalitarian

Aryan (misused term)

Opposition eliminated

Heinrich Himmler- SS

  • Terror and ideology

    Massive rearmament

    Spectacles

    Women’s roles

    Anti-Semitic policies

  • Nuremburg Laws

  • Kristallnacht


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