Improving service quality and productivity
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Improving Service Quality and Productivity. Chapter 14. Improving Service Quality . The GAP Model is: A Conceptual Tool to Identify and Correct Service Quality Problems. The Gaps Model of Service Quality.

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Improving Service Quality and Productivity

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Improving Service Quality and Productivity

Chapter 14

Improving Service Quality

  • The GAP Model is: A Conceptual Tool to Identify and Correct Service Quality Problems

The Gaps Model of Service Quality

  • The gaps model is a useful framework for understanding service quality in an organization.

  • It demonstrate that the most critical service quality gap to close is the customer gap, the difference between customer expectations and perceptions.

  • The model shows four gaps that occur in companies, which we call provider gaps, are responsible for the customer gap.

  • It identifies the factors responsible for each of the four provider gaps.

The Gaps Model – Figure 14.3

Customer Expectations





Key Factors Leading to the Customer Gap

Inadequate marketing research orientation

Lack of upward communication

Insufficient relationship focus

Inadequate service recovery

Key Factors Leading to Gap 1

Poor service design

Absence of customer-driven standards

Inappropriate physical evidence and servicescape

Key Factors Leading to Gap 2

  • Deficiencies in human resource policies

  • Customers who do not fulfill roles

  • Problems with service intermediaries

  • Failure to match supply and demand

Key Factors Leading to Gap 3

  • Lack of integrated services marketing communications

  • Over promising

  • Ineffective management of customer expectations

  • Inadequate horizontal communications

Key Factors Leading to Gap 4

The Gaps Model – Figure 14.3

The Customer Gap – Gap 5 & 6

Handling Consumer Gaps

Learning from Customer Feedback

Customer Feedback Collection Tools

  • Total market surveys

  • Annual surveys

  • Transactional surveys

  • Service feedback cards

  • Mystery shopping

  • Unsolicited customer feedback

  • Focus group discussions

  • Service reviews

Evaluating Feedback Methods

Video – Mystery Shopper

Analysis, Reporting and Dissemination of Customer Feedback

  • Choosing the relevant feedback tools and collecting customer feedback is meaningless if the information is not passed back to the relevant parties to take action

  • Reporting system needs to deliver feedback to frontline staff, process owners, branch/department managers and top management

  • Three types of performance reports:

    • Monthly Service Performance Update

    • Quarterly Service Performance Review

    • Annual Service Performance Report

Customer-driven ways to Improve Service Productivity

  • Change timing of customer demand

    • By shifting demand away from peaks, managers can make better use of firm’s productive assets and provide better service

  • Encourage use of lower cost channels

    • Get customers to self-serve

    • Encourage customers to obtain information and buy from firm’s corporate Websites

  • Ask customers to use third parties

    • Delegate delivery of supplementary service elements to intermediary organizations

  • Productivity Improvements and Quality

    • Front-stage productivity enhancements are especially visible in high contact services

      • Some improvements only require passive acceptance, while others require customers to change behavior

      • Must consider impacts on customers and address customer resistance to changes

  • Backstage changes may impact customers

    • Keep track of proposed backstage changes, and prepare customers for them

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