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1998 Bangladesh Flood. Causes Effects Prevention. Basic Information. Bangladesh is a relatively poor country with GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,500 (2009 est.) It is basically a large floodplain & delta formed by deposition from the major rivers that flow through it.

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1998 bangladesh flood

1998 Bangladesh Flood

Causes

Effects

Prevention

www.i-study.co.uk

basic information
Basic Information
  • Bangladesh is a relatively poor country with GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,500 (2009 est.)
  • It is basically a large floodplain & delta formed by deposition from the major rivers that flow through it.
  • The fact that is floods has brought benefits such as fertile land and reliable water supplies. It is increasingly a problem though as the population increases.
  • It lacks resources such as minerals & metals due to the way it was formed.
  • It has a population of about 156 million.

www.i-study.co.uk

human causes of flooding
Human causes of Flooding
  • Deforestation in Himalayan areas (N. Bangladesh, Nepal & India) – fuel, building material → ↓ interception & ↑ surface runoff, ↑ soil erosion.
  • Increasing populations → ↑ urbanisation → ↑ impermeable surfaces → ↑ surface runoff & ↑ speed of runoff.
  • Human influences on erosion nearer the sources of the rivers is causing increased issues from deposition in Bangladesh.
  • Lack of money leads to poor investment in flood defences (building of new ones & maintenance of existing ones).
  • Climate change attributed to human activity is raising sea levels which increases storm surge flooding events.

www.i-study.co.uk

physical causes of flooding
Physical causes of flooding
  • Monsoon rains – wet season (May-Sep).
  • Snow melt from the Himalayas in the summer months.
  • Low lying land → storm surges cause flooding from the sea.
  • 3 major rivers (Ganges, Brahmaputra & Meghna) converge in Bangladesh if they are in peak flow then they are likely to flood here.
  • Bangladesh is essentially one large floodplain.
  • Formed by deposition from these rivers, Bangladesh is very flat → large areas flood when a river bursts its banks.
  • Continued deposition ↓ river channels capacity & increases likeliness of flooding.

www.i-study.co.uk

effects
Effects
  • 57% of land flooded.
  • Rice crops destroyed & livestock drowned → subsequent food shortages & ↑ prices.
  • Drinking water supplies contaminated → spread of cholera & dysentery. Also a severe shortage of drinkable water.
  • 7 million homes destroyed & 25 million made homeless.
  • Almost $1 billion of damage.
  • 4750 people killed.
  • Severe damage to infra-structure (factories, roads, schools, water) leading to decreased economic output.

www.i-study.co.uk

solutions
Solutions
  • In 1989  the government of Bangladesh began working with a number of international agencies to produce a Flood Action Plan.
  • This huge scheme contained 26 action points which it was hoped would provide a long term solution to the country\'s flooding problems.

www.i-study.co.uk

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Short Term Management

  • Boats to rescue people
  • Emergency supplies for food, water, tents and medicines
  • Fodder for livestock
  • Repair and rebuild houses, as well as services such as sewage etc
  • Aid from other countries

Long Term Management

  • Reduce Deforestation in Nepal & Himalayas
  • Build 7 large dams in Bangladesh to store excess water $30-$40 million and 40 yrs to complete
  • Build 5000 flood shelters to accommodate all the population
  • Build 350km of embankment - 7 metres high at a cost of $6 billion to reduce flooding along the main river channels
  • Create flood water storage areas
  • Develop an effective Flood Warning Scheme

www.i-study.co.uk

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