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Write these questions in your NB. Compare/Contrast an Element vs. Compound Who is attributed with developing the Periodic Table? How was the 1 st Periodic Table Arranged? How is that different from now? What is periodicity?. Periodic Patterns. Unit 4 – Periodic Table. METALLIC TREND.

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Write these questions in your NB

  • Compare/Contrast an Element vs. Compound

  • Who is attributed with developing the Periodic Table?

  • How was the 1st Periodic Table Arranged? How is that different from now?

  • What is periodicity?


Periodic Patterns

Unit 4 – Periodic Table


METALLIC TREND

INCREASES

INCREASES


ATOMIC RADIUS

  • Radius is the distance from the center of the nucleus to the “edge” of the electron cloud.

  • Atomic radii are usually measured in picometers (pm) or angstroms (Å). An angstrom is

    1 x 10-10m.


ATOMIC RADII TRENDS

DOWN A FAMILY OR GROUP

WHY?

  • As you go down a family thenvalue increases making the radius larger.

INCREASES


ATOMIC RADII TRENDS

ACROSS A PERIOD

WHY?

  • As you go across a period the number of protons increases, (nuclear charge) pulling the electrons in tighter making the radius smaller.

DECREASES


IONS- Has a charge

Metals

  • Lose electrons becoming positive.

    Calcium – Ca

    Loses 2 e-s becoming

    Ca+2

Nonmetals

  • Gain electrons becoming negative.

    Chlorine – Cl

    Gains one e- becoming Cl-1


IONS – How can I remember?

Metals

Nonmetals

This is Cat-ion - CATION

This is Ann ion - ANION

He is a “plussy” cat!

She is unhappy and negative.


IONIC RADII TRENDS

DOWN A FAMILY OR GROUP

WHY?

  • As you go down a family thenvalue increases making the radius larger.

INCREASES


IONIC RADII TRENDS

ACROSS A PERIOD

WHY?

  • For the metals thenuclear chargeis greater than then number of electronspulling them in tighter making the radius smaller.

  • At the nonmetals the radius gets larger because the ion has gained electrons.

DECREASES then INCREASE


METALLIC ATOM AND ION COMPARISON


Shielding Effect

As more electrons are added to atoms, the inner layers of electrons shield the outer electrons from the nucleus.

The effective nuclear charge on those outer electrons is less, and so the outer electrons are less tightly held


Example of Shielding Effect


Ionization Energy

The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is ionization energy. (measured in kilojoules, kJ)


IONIZATION ENERGY

The larger the atom is, the easier its electrons are to remove.

Ionization energy and atomic radius are inversely proportional.

Ionization energy is always endothermic, that is energy is added to the atom to remove the electron.


IONIZATION TREND

INCREASES

INCREASES


Electron Affinity

is a measure of the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion


ELECTRON AFFINITY

Why do the Alkaline Earth Metals and Noble Gases not have measurable Electron Affinities?


Electronegativity

is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.


ELECTRONEGATIVITY


In Summary….

Electronegativity

Electronegativity


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