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MEASUREMENTS, EMISSIONS and DISPERSION of NOx, HC, PM10. VÄSTRA GÖTALAND. µg/m. 3. Maximum permitted values. 75. 70. 60. Environmental quiality norm. 50. Checked by measurements. 40. Upper check-level. 30. Checked by. measurements in. combination with model s.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

MEASUREMENTS,

EMISSIONS andDISPERSION ofNOx, HC, PM10

slide4

µg/m

3

Maximum permitted values

75

70

60

Environmental quiality norm

50

Checked bymeasurements

40

Upper check-level

30

Checked by

measurements in

combination with models

Lower check-level

20

Checked by models

10

0

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Year

Exemple for PM10 as daily mean

slide5
Measurements
  • Emission calculations
  • Dispersion calculations
measuring sites for pm10
MEASURING SITES for PM10

Gothenburg

Mariestad

Aspvreten

Råö

Borås

Färgelanda

slide12

Aspvreten

BALTIC SEA

slide18

(all coexistent)

Month mean of

slide19

(no precipitation)

Background

thu

wed

thu

thu

fri

sat

sun

mon

tue

slide20

(no precipitation)

Background

sat

wed

sun

tue

mon

thu

fri

slide21

(no precipitation)

Background

sat

wed

sun

mon

thu

fri

tue

slide22

(no precipitation)

Street - Background

sat

mon

fri

sun

wed

thu

tue

slide23

(with precipitation)

Street - Background

mon

fri

sat

wed

sun

tue

thu

slide24

Gothenburg

Roof; city center

mon

wed

sun

tue

sat

thu

fri

slide25

Gothenburg

Roof; city center

wed

fri

sun

sat

mon

thu

tue

slide26

Gothenburg

Ratio

Roof; city center

sat

mon

thu

sun

tue

fri

wed

slide36

NOx (ton/Year)

VOC (ton/year)

267.7

70.5

421.8

2398.8

928.4

442.4

3964.3

1206.4

707.2

803.4

Particles (ton/year)

41.0

235.5

Agriculture

Forestry

Housholding

302.2

Industry

Other

92.1

72.7

slide42

A

Cars are split up by age:

B

C

D

E

F

slide44

Traffic intensity on different parts of the roads:

  • Year of calculation:
  • Traffic intensity is a function of year
  • Number of cars of different ages is a function of year
emissions g km are functions of
Emissions (g/km) are functions of:
  • Type of car
  • Age of car
  • Type of road
  • Speed limit on road
slide46

Cold start

Hot soak

slide52

ALARM-systemet

  • Leif Enger
  • Enger KM-konsult AB
  • Blixtgatan 9
  • Uppsala
  • Sweden
  • leif @ enger.se
the alarm system consist of
The ALARM- system consist of
  • Meteorology model
  • Dispersion model
  • Measurements
  • Menu program
  • Grafics
slide55
Meteorology model:The MIUU-modelDeveloped by Leif Enger and several othersat Meteorological Institute Uppsala University
slide56

”The MIUU-method” for wind climate modelling

  • Output
  • Wind
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Turbulent energy

MIUU-model

WWEC 2003, November 23-26, Cape Town, South Africa

Hans Bergström, Department of Earth Sciences-Meteorology, Uppsala University

  • Input
  • Air pressure field
  • Topography
  • Surface roughness
  • Landuse
  • Ground temperature
  • Cloudiness
  • Longitude and latitude
  • Time of year
  • Initial profiles of temperature and hunidity
slide57
Metorological databaseTheMIUU-model simulates wind, temperature and turbulence over a day for a great number of cases:
  • Three geostrophic wind speeds
  • 36 different wind directions
  • 4 different ”seasons”

Calculated wind, temperature and turbulence fields are saved once per hour during the day.

This provides us with about 10 000 different meteorological cases.

slide58

Database creation, phase 1:

Wind, temperature and turbulence fields over Sweden and surrounding seas are simulated with the MIUU-model with 5 km resolution. This includes surrounding areas that is supposed to influence the wind climate over Sweden.

slide59

m/s

Database creation :

Example of wind fields from simulation with the MIUU-model with 5 km resolution.

A case in april with NW geostrophic wind of 15 m/s.

The north and south areas fit very well in the overlapping parts, which give us the wind field for the whole Scandinavia.

In this case high winds in e.g. the mountains, north and south Baltic Sea, as well as over Kattegatt and Skagerack.

slide60

Database creation, phase 2:

Wind , temperature and turbulence fields are simulated with the MIUU-model with 1 km resolution. Sweden is divided into 15 areas. Boundary conditions are taken from the model results from the 5 km resolution simulations.

slide62

Exemple of dispersion from area sourcesMovie: Dispersion of NOx during 4 days. One hour between each picture.

slide73

ships

Line

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