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Fig 5 1

s

N

s

y

s

x

s

z

mode

I

r

y

x

mode II

z

mode III

mode II

r » 0

mode

I

s

N

B

Fig.: 5.1

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

SENB specimen (single-edge-notched bend specimen)

F

W=10mm

B= 2…10mm

L=80mm

s=40…70mm

a=0.5…7.5mm

N= 2mm

W

a

F/2

F/2

N

s

L/2

L/2

a

F s

K = f

I

3/2

W

B W

9

7

1

5

3

a

a

a

a

a

a

2

2

2

2

2

f = 2.9 − 4.6 + 21.8 − 37.6 + 38.7

W

W

W

W

W

W

2

a

a

a

a

1.99 − 1 − 2.15 − 3.93 + 2.7

W

W

W

a

W

3

a

f =

3

W

2

W

a

a

2

1−

1+2

W

W

Fig.: 5.2a

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

SENT specimen (single-edge-notched tension specimen)

W= 40mm

H= 150mm

s=120mm

D= 10mm

a=18… 22mm

N= 3mm

B= 2… 10mm

F

W/2

H/2

W

s

a

N

H/2

O D

1/2

a

F a

K = f

I

W

B W

F

4

2

3

a

a

a

a

a

f = 1.99 − 0.41 + 18.7 − 38.48 + 53.85

W

W

W

W

W

Fig.: 5.2b

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

CT specimen (compact tension specimen)

F

W=40mm

H= 48mm

G=50mm

s=22mm

D=10mm

a=18…22mm

N= 2mm

B= 2…34mm

l=1.5mm

H/2

l

s

O D

N

H/2

a

W

F

G

a

F

K = f

I

1/2

W

B W

9

1

3

7

5

a

a

a

a

a

a

2

2

2

2

2

f = 29.6 − 185.5 + 655.7 − 1017 + 638.9

W

W

W

W

W

W

Fig.: 5.2c

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

b

260

K

a

240

c

1/2

240

K

Ic

210

220

K ; K (MPamm )

180

SENT

1/2

200

Ic

150

B

EDZ

min

c

K ; K (MPamm )

180

120

B

ESZ/EDZ

Ic

160

90

10

20

30

0

c

K

c

B (mm)

140

60

K

Ic

120

B

CT

min

100

0

2

4

6

8

1

0

B (mm)

B

(

m

m

)

Fig.: 5.3


Fig 5 1

a

residual fracture area

b

damage area

stable crack growth

(fracture mirror length)

machined notch

(razor blade notch)

100 µm

B

Fig.: 5.4

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

s

y

s

y

d

x

r

a

pl

s

Fig.: 5.5

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

a

b

200 µm

50 µm

Fig.: 5.6

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

s/2

d/2

2

3

(W a)

W

1

1

n

max

f

1hinge point

2sharp notch

3support

Fig.: 5.7

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

y

2

s/2

1

d

SZH

d/2

x

SZH

3

100 µm

SZW

a

stable crack growth

5 µm

b

stretch zone

brittle fracture

initial crack

SZW

10 µm

SZH

c

d

Fig.: 5.8

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

T

y

n

a

b

I

dR

1

a

1

I

2

a

F

2

I

Riss

3

a

crack

3

x

1

2

A

R

G

f (i=1...3)

i

f resp. v

c

d

J

Ic

I

I

I

1

2

3

J

A

I

G

B

f

3

a

¶A

f

1

1

G

2

f

¶a

B

a

a

1

3

2

a

f resp. v

Fig.: 5.9

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

loading

parameter

blunting Line

J; d

technical crack initiation

J ; d

0.2 0.2

resistance against

crack propagation

crack propagation

physical crack

initiation

resistance against

crack initiation

crack initiation

J ; d

i i

crack blunting

Da

Da = 0.2 mm

SZW

stable crack growth Da

Fig.: 5.10

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

junction diode

laser

collecting lens

F

deflection

mirror

CT specimen

start

v

F

semiconductor

prism

motor

t

stop

evaluation and

graphics

rotating mirror

Fig.: 5.11

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

type II

type I

5 %

5 %

F

max

T

T

F

max

F

F

Q

Q

F

F

S

S

a

v

v

c

c

v; v ; f

v; v ; f

L

L

Fig.: 5.12

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

crack initiation

crack propagation

5

4

b

c

crack blunting

3

200 µm

1 mm

2

a

1

50 µm

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

-2

F/(B(W−a )) (Nmm )

f (mm)

eff

Fig.: 5.13

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

unnotched specimen notched specimen

F

F

max

max

F (N)

F (N)

A

A

G

0

v ; f

v ; f

0

L0

max

Lmax

v ; f (mm)

v ; f (mm)

L

L

Fig.: 5.14

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

load–deflection diagram

Charpy impact tester

ICIT-4J

AG = Apl + Ael

Fmax

striker

load (F) -

transducer

Fgy

load F (N)

t

specimen

F1

Apl

AR

personal

computer

tB ; fmax

fgy

time resp. deflection (ms; mm)

analysis of F–f diagram

amplifier

digital

oscilloscope

- checking of experimental conditions

tB > 3t

F1 < Fmax

AH > 3 AG

- SEM analysis of fracture surface

- fracture mechanics concept

support

- checking of geometry

- independence of fracture mechanics

values

photooptical

transducer

deflection (f) -

sensor

KId ; dId ; JId

Fig.: 5.15

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

Fmax

II

I

III

Fmax

Fmax

Fgy

FF

AG = Apl + Ael

Fgy

Apl

F

AG

Ael

AG

fgy

fmax

fmax

fmax

fgy

Fmax

Ia

IIa

IIIa

Fmax

Fmax

Fgy

FF

Fgy

Apl

AR

AG

AR

AG

Ael

AR

fmax

fmax

fmax

fgy

fgy

f

Fig.: 5.16

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

a/W = 0.45

a/W = 0.2

F = 53 N

max

-1

F = 36 N

F = 36 N

1

1

F = 28 N

v = 2.9 ms

max

I

F = 62 N

max

-1

F = 36 N

max

v = 1 ms

I

F = 8 N

F = 8 N

1

1

Fig.: 5.17

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

F

A

W

a

s

L

B

B

B

0.05 < a/W < 0.15

0.1 < a/W < 0.4

0.3 < a/W < 0.7

Fig.: 5.18

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

3.0

PVCC

BL

J

2.5

-1

FEM

J

v = 1.5 ms

I

s/W = 4

RT

2.0

J-integral ratio

MC

J

1.5

FEM

J

1.0

ST

J

FEM

J

0.5

RPM

J

FEM

J

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Fig.: 5.19

a/W

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

100

-1.73

b = 3466 K

I

10

b

1

0.1

100

1000

10

1/2

K ; K (MPamm )

Id

Ic

Fig.: 5.20

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

10000

-0.94

e = 224 J

I

1000

e

100

10

1

1

10

100

0.1

-1

J ; J (Nmm )

Id

Ic

Fig.: 5.21

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

100

-0.83

 = 3.6 d

Idk

10

0.1

1

0.01

d [mm]

Idk

Fig.: 5.22

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

spring

F

acceleration

unit

drop

weigth

strain gauge

lifting device

clamped test

sheet

cross-head

masses

controller

instrumented

drop weigth

support

temperature chamber

Fig.: 5.23

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

PA 6 + impact modifier

25

0 wt.-%

5 wt.-%

10 wt.-%

20 wt.-%

25 wt.-%

20

15

10

5

0

70

90

10

30

-30

50

-70

-50

-10

T (°C)

ST

J (Nmm-1)

d

Fig.: 5.24

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

7

6

5

4

PVC/chalk

3

PP/chalk

PVC/SiO

2

2

PE/SiO

2

PE/BW

1

PE/HP

0

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.4

0

j

v

ST

J (Nmm-1)

d

Fig.: 5.25

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

a

b

2.0

500

1.8

450

1.6

400

1.4

350

1.2

300

f (mm)

F (N)

max

1.0

PVC/chalk

max

250

PP/chalk

0.8

200

PVC/SiO

2

0.6

PE/SiO

2

150

PE/BW

0.4

PE/HP

100

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.4

0

0

50

j

j

0

v

v

Fig.: 5.26

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

1.6

stearic acid

surfactant

1.4

 = 0.9

 = 1.5

a

b

1.2

1.0

5 µm

2 µm

0.8

0

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

coupling agent content (wt.-%)

M

ST

J /J

Id

Fig.: 5.27

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

110

PVC

P

V

C

100

j

PVC + chalk (j = 0.17)

P

V

C

+

K

r

e

i

d

e

(

=

0

,

1

7

)

v

v

90

d (10-3 mm)

80

Id

70

60

50

40

30

20

-150 -100 -50 0 50

1

2

3

1

7

3

2

2

3

2

7

3

3

2

3

T (°C)

T

(

K

)

Fig.: 5.28

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

b

a

450

0.45

400

0.40

350

f (mm)

F (N)

max

max

300

0.35

250

0.30

200

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

j

j

v

v

5

c

d

210

K (a )

ld

eff

4

180

1/2

-1

150

J (Nmm )

K (MPamm )

3

K (a )

ld

0

Id

120

Id

2

90

1

60

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

j

j

Fig.: 5.29

v

v

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

2.5

2.0

PP/GF

1.5

Id

M

PE/GF

J /J

Id

1.0

0.5

; experiment

model

0

0

0.3

0.1

0.2

j

v

Fig.: 5.30

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

F

F

G

G

100 N

M

100 N

f

A /A

f

A /A

R

1.2

R

M

0.8 mm

0.8 mm

1.0

100 µm

0.8

PP + glass-fiber

0.6

(j = 0.13)

v

0.4

100 µm

0

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

coupling agent content (wt.-%)

Fig.: 5.31

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

4

E/P copolymer + 10 wt.-% GF

with 0.4 wt.-% CA

3

J (Nmm-1)

2

without CA

1

0

0.2

0.6

0.4

0

0.8

Da (mm)

CA – coupling agent content

Fig.: 5.32

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

;

experiment

;

model

100

80

with coupling agent

-2

60

a (kJm )

cN

without coupling agent

40

20

0

80

100

0

20

40

60

PE content (wt.-%)

Fig.: 5.33

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

TPU/ABS blends

Da

Da

9

min

max

TPU/ABS 50/50

7

TPU/ABS 20/80

-1

J (Nmm )

5

ABS

3

1

0

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.8

Da (mm)

Fig.: 5.34

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

4

-1

3

T = 30 °C

A  1.4 µm

J (Nmm )

c

16

0.2

A = 2.00 µm

2

A = 1.45 µm

A = 1.40 µm

12

1

A = 1.30 µm

2.0

1.0

1.5

A = 1.20 µm

Da

A (µm)

min

-1

J (Nmm )

8

4

Da

max

0

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0

Da (mm)

Fig.: 5.35

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

10

8

-1

A  0.4 µm

6

J (Nmm )

c

T = 23 °C

4

30

0.2

2

Da

max

0

0.6

0.9

1.2

0.3

A (µm)

20

A = 1.00 µm

A = 0.57 µm

-1

A = 0.54 µm

J (Nmm )

A = 0.40 µm

Da

min

A = 0.39 µm

A = 0.36 µm

10

0

0.8

0.6

0

0.2

0.4

Da (mm)

Fig.: 5.36

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

copolymer 1 (30 °C)

8

copolymer 2 (20 °C)

-1

6

J (Nmm )

7

4

0.2

2

6

0

3

1

2

4

0

5

A/D

4

brittle

copolymer 1

3

tough

2

copolymer 2

1

high impact

0

20

-30

10

-20

-10

40

0

30

50

T (°C)

(A/D)

c

Fig.: 5.37

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

energy - determined

100

80

high impact

60

j (wt.-%)

tough

EPR

40

20

brittle

0

-80

-60

0

-40

20

-20

40

T (°C)

ST

J

J

Id

0.2

Fig.: 5.38

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

175

composition 1

150

1/2

K (MPamm )

125

Id

100

composition 2

75

0

10

30

20

40

50

t (min)

w

Fig.: 5.39

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

2 µm

Fig.: 5.40

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

carbon black content (phr)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

J (Nmm-1)

d

200

carbon black

150

sulfur

100

50

0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

sulfur content (phr)

Fig.: 5.41

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


Fig 5 1

material selection

dimensioning

fracture behavior

strength verification

strain verification

e >e

e < e

s <s

s >s

brittle

tough

undefined

zul

zul

zul

zul

Charpy impact strength

unsufficient

sufficient

demands on technology

velocity-

manufacturing monitoring

temperature-

realizable

unrealizable

shifting-concept

unsufficient

sufficient

fracture mechanics

concept

realization

K < K

K > K

I I zul

I I zul

or

J > J

J < J

I I zul

I I zul

Fig.: 5.42

Chapter 5: Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plastics. In: Grellmann, W., Seidler, S. (Eds.): Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich (2013) 2. Edition


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