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Warm-Up 9-12. If a region of a map has contour lines close together what does that tell you about the region? Why do contour lines never overlap? Draw a small contour map of a 100m tall mountain with two peaks. Maps and Topography! To LITHOSPHERE!. Rocks. What is a Rock?.

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Warm-Up 9-12

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Warm-Up 9-12

  • If a region of a map has contour lines close together what does that tell you about the region?

  • Why do contour lines never overlap?

  • Draw a small contour map of a 100m tall mountain with two peaks.

Maps and Topography! ToLITHOSPHERE!


What is a Rock?

  • Naturally-occurring mixtures of minerals, mineraloids, glass or organic matter.

What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?

  • Rocks are made up of ONE or MORE minerals.

Warm-Up. Happy Friday!

  • What is magma?

  • What is lava?

  • Explain the difference between a rock and a mineral.

  • How do rocks form?

Take about 10min to quietly read the article.

Then answer the following questions:

What activities in your life are dependent upon the successful work of a geologist?

How could an understanding of geology help you understand the world around you?

What did you find the most interesting about this article?

Does anything about this article make you nervous?

What is a Rock?

  • Rocks are divided into 3 groups based on how they were formed:




Igneous Rocks

Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling down of magma or lava.

2 types of igneous rocks

  • Intrusive

  • Extrusive

INTRUSIVE rocks cooled slowly INside of the earth. Composed of larger crystals

EXTRUSIVE means “out of the earth”

It cooled on the surface of the earth and has small crystals


Crystal forming video!

Igneous rocks are classified according to the composition and texture.

Composition is the minerals that the rock is made of

Felsic rocks: light colored, high silica content

Mafic rocks: dark rock, low silica content

Texture is the size, shape, arrangement, and distribution of those minerals in the rock.

There are 4 textures: glassy, fine-grained, course-grained, and porphyritic.


Glassy – obsidian

Fine-grained - basalt

Course-grained - Granite

Porphyritic means that it has large crystals with small ones also.

Sedimentary Rocks

Sediments are pieces of solid material that have been weathered and then deposited

Sedimentary rocks are formed when rocks are broken down into sediments (weathered) and compacted together. (Compaction and cementation)

Sedimentary rocks are classified

3 classifications: clastic, chemical, organic



1. They are the most common sedimentary rock

  • Are made from pieces of previous rock

  • Example: “Big Chunks” – Breccia

  • Example: Small pebbles, clay, and sand “glued” together – Conglomerate

  • Example: Small sand grains only = sandstone


Formed when a lake or ocean dries up, leaving behind minerals.

Calcite, Halite, and Gypsum are examples


They are formed from the remains of once living things

Coal is made from plant remains.



Metamorphic Rocks

  • Were once igneous or sedimentary rocks

  • Have been changed because of heat and/or pressure.

  • Very strong rock. Resistant to weathering.


  • Explain the rock cycle in enough detail to relate the cycling of materials - formation and destruction of the three major rock types to the

  • forces responsible: physical and chemical weathering, heat and pressure, deposition, foliation and bedding. The forms of energy that

  • drive the rock cycle include heat and mechanical (gravitational potential) energy.


  • How is an INTRUSIVE igneous rock formed?

  • What are the 3 types of sedimentary rocks?

  • When are chemical sedimentary rocks formed?

The Rock Cycle

1. The rock cycle is the continuous changing and remaking of rocks.


2. Igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks may be transformed by heat, pressure, and chemical reactions into metamorphic rocks.

  • Metamorphic rocks may be changed or metamorphosed into other metamorphic rocks.

    They also may be remelted into an igneous rock.

    Or a metamorphic rock can be weathered to form a sedimentary rock.


(broken down)

Heat And Pressure



Heat And Pressure


(broken down)

4. Any rock can be changed into another rock!

Warm Up 2/6

  • Write 3-5 sentences about anything and everything that you know about rocks.

    (Things to think/write about: Are there different types of rocks? If so, what makes them different? Why are rocks different colors? Why do rocks have different textures?)

Rock Cycle Vocabulary


  • a mixture of one or more minerals, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other materials

Sedimentary Rock

  • forms when sediments are compacted and cemented together or when minerals are left behind by evaporation


Metamorphic Rock

  • forms when heat and pressure act on igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rock and change its form or make up.


Igneous Rock

  • intrusive or extrusive rock formed when hot magma cools and hardens


Rock Cycle

  • model that describes how rocks slowly change from one form to another through time



  • loose materials such as rock fragments, dirt, silt, and sand


  • hot, melted rock material beneath the Earth’s surface


  • surface process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces (wind, rain, temperature, etc)


  • process in which surface materials (sediments) are worn away and transported from one place to another by water, wind, and glaciers


  • The process of eroded materials being moved and deposited in another place.


  • sedimentary rock-forming process in which large sediments are held together by natural cements (matrix) like evaporated mud


  • process that forms sedimentary rocks when layers of small sediments are compressed by the weight of the layers above

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