Levels of support levels of prompting
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Levels of Support/ Levels of Prompting. Paraeducator Training Series AIU 3 adapted from Lifelines, LRConsulting, Katy, TX. Local Policy.

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Levels of support levels of prompting

Levels of Support/Levels of Prompting

Paraeducator Training Series

AIU 3

adapted from Lifelines, LRConsulting, Katy, TX


Local policy

Local Policy

Your local school district, IU, preschool or employing agency’s policies regarding paraeducator job descriptions, duties, and responsibilities provide the final word!


Agenda

Agenda

  • Define “student independence”

  • Share strategies to build independence

  • The Natural Cycle of Behavior:

    Case scenarios


Learner outcomes

Learner Outcomes

Participants will:

  • Identify instructional concepts (cues/prompts, modeling, shaping, wait time, use of reinforcers, and fading of support).

  • Apply these instructional concepts to scenarios as strategies to teach independence.

  • Apply strategies to instruction.


Student independence

Student Independence

What is it?

Why build it?

What does it look like?

What is my role in building student independence?


Our goal

Our Goal…

  • Our goal as paraeducators is to help students with disabilities become as independent as possible throughout the school, home, and community.


Student independence1

Student Independence

What is it?

  • Freedom from the influence or control of others

  • Completing a task without undo assistance

  • Using resources to meet your personal needs

  • Self-help (a.k.a. Self-advocating)

  • Making appropriate choices and decisions

  • Being able to say, “I can do it myself!”


Student independence2

Student Independence

What is it?

  • Students…

    “need a supportive environment to function successfully in school—and later in the workplace. A supportive environment enables them to capitalize on their strengths and minimize or cope effectively with their weaknesses” (Larkin, 2001)


Student independence3

Student Independence

What is it?

  • Builds self-esteem

  • Motivates a student to achieve

  • Gives student a sense of purpose

  • Social acceptance

  • Reduces stereotypic labels

  • Allows teachers to focus on instruction


Student independence4

Student Independence

What does it look like?

  • Use of a planner to write down assignments

  • Use of magnification software to read a text

  • Using a joystick to manipulate a computer

  • Use of pictures to guide task completion

  • Use of an orthopedic device for walking

  • Taking the elevator rather than the stairs

  • Tying ones own shoes


Student independence5

Student Independence

What is my role in building student independence?

  • Build your knowledge about strategies

  • Help only when they cannot do it themselves

  • Teach independence

  • Offer support, as needed

  • Build independence throughout the day


Scaffolding instruction

Scaffolding Instruction


Scaffolding instruction1

Scaffolding Instruction

Defined

“Scaffolded instruction is the “systematic sequencing of prompted content, materials, tasks, and teacher and peer support to optimize learning.”

(Dickson, Chard, & Simmons, 1993, p. 12)


Scaffolding instruction2

Scaffolding Instruction

Essential Features

  • Interaction takes place in a collaborative environment and honors the child’s intentions

  • Expectations are developmentally appropriate

  • Support is gradually withdrawn as skills are gained

  • The child internalizes the knowledge and becomes independent


Scaffolding instruction3

Scaffolding Instruction

Guidelines for Implementation

  • Identify what the student already knows

  • Begin with what the student CAN do

  • Help students achieve success quickly

  • Help students to “be” like everyone else

  • Know when it’s time to stop

  • Help students be independent when they have command of the activity


Our goal1

Our Goal…

  • Our goal as paraeducators is to help students with disabilities become as independent as possible throughout the school, home, and community.


Strategies to build independence

Strategies to Build Independence

Cues/Prompts

Modeling

Shaping

Wait Time

Fading

Reinforcers


Strategies to build independence1

Strategies to build independence

Cues/Prompts

  • Verbal or nonverbal signals that indicate what action is necessary

    Example:

    “Do you remember the 9/10 strategy

    we learned yesterday?”


Strategies to build independence2

Strategies to build independence

Modeling

  • To demonstrate a behavior or completion of a task for the learner

    Example:

    25 50 75 $1.00


Strategies to build independence3

Strategies to build independence

Shaping

  • To teach a behavior or task by providing cues, models, and consequences for steps demonstrated gradually until the final behavior or task is learned

    Example:

    Wider-lined paperNarrower-lined paper


Strategies to build independence4

Strategies to build independence

Wait Time

  • The amount of time given to the student to respond to a question or complete a task

    Example:

    Question (wait 20 seconds)

    No response? Rephrase the question.


Strategies to build independence5

Strategies to build independence

Fading

  • A gradual reduction of cues/prompts and extrinsic (outside) reinforcers as the student demonstrates desired behavior or task


Example

Example


Strategies to build independence6

Strategies to build independence

Reinforcers

  • Any action or event that increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur

    • Positive Reinforcer

      Adding something desirable

      Example: “You have earned extra free time!”

    • Negative Reinforcer

      Taking away an aversive

      Example: “You only have to finish the first half of the worksheet”


Strategies to build independence7

Strategies to build independence

Reinforcers

  • Reinforcers that occur naturally

    Example: David follows directions to silently read a story. He participates in class discussion. When the next story is assigned, David eagerly opens his book and reads.


Strategies to build independence8

Strategies to build independence

Reinforcers

  • Reinforcers that are contrived (not naturally occurring) and are intentionally provided to increase the behavior or to ensure task completion

    Example: Accelerated Reader

    Videogames (Score!)

    Popcorn Party for good behavior


Making connections to the classroom

Making Connections to the Classroom

ACTIVITY


Making connections to the classroom activity

Making Connections to the Classroom Activity

Directions:

With a partner, read the scenarios and determine which type of support has been offered to the student. Check the column of the appropriate strategy. I will model one for you!


Making connections to the classroom activity i do

Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: I do!

Math is scheduled after language. Lisa has finished her language arts assignments and is sitting at her desk. The paraeducator points to a schedule taped to Lisa’s desk to indicate that it is 10:00 and time for math. Lisa takes out her math book, waiting for the teacher to begin the math lesson.


Making connections to the classroom activity we do

Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: We do!

While accompanying the class to McDonald’s, Lisa selects the items to order, places her order, pays and checks her change. The clerk smiles and thanks her for eating at McDonald’s. Lisa joins the paraeducator and other class members to eat her lunch. Lisa is excited about the possibility of coming back to McDonald’s again.


Making connections to the classroom activity we do1

Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: We do!

While accompanying the class to McDonald’s, Lisa selects the items to order, places her order, pays and checks her change. The clerk smiles and thanks her for eating at McDonald’s. Lisa joins the paraeducator and other class members to eat her lunch. Lisa is excited about the possibility of coming back to McDonald’s again.


Making connections to the classroom activity you do

Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: You do!

Complete the following 5 scenarios with your partner and check the column showing the strategy used.


The natural cycle of behavior

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Case Scenarios


The natural cycle of behavior1

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

  • Natural or Imposed Cue

  • Behavior or Action

  • Reinforcer

  • Independence


The natural cycle of behavior2

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural or Imposed Cue:

Strategy for Independence

Expected Behavior:

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer

Student connecting the natural or imposed cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently

1998 LRConsulting


Strategies to build independence9

Strategies to build independence

  • The Natural Cue

    -- It’s raining outside


Strategies to build independence10

Strategies to build independence

  • The Imposed Cue

    • Questions

    • Options

    • Auditory Cue

    • Visual Cue

    • Tactile Cue


The natural cycle of behavior3

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s Raining Outside

Cues/Prompts

Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts in some way.

Ask a question about necessary action.

Give an option.

Tell the student what action to take.

Physically guide the student through the process.

Student will take an umbrella when going outside.

Does the student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student Stays Dry

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently

1998 LRConsulting


The natural cycle of behavior4

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s Raining Outside

Modeling

Point out someone who is doing the behavior correctly.

Demonstrate the action that needs to be taken.

Student will take an umbrella when going outside.

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student Stays Dry

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


The natural cycle of behavior5

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s Raining Outside

Shaping

Break the task/behavior into smaller steps

Model steps

Have student complete initial or final step

Gradually add steps for student to complete

Student will take an umbrella when going outside.

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student Stays Dry

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


The natural cycle of behavior6

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s Raining Outside

Wait Time

After questioning/modeling, paraeducator allows adequate time for the student to respond.

Student will take an umbrella when going outside.

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student Stays Dry

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


Instrinsic extrinsic reinforcers

Instrinsic & Extrinsic Reinforcers

  • Draw attention to the natural consequences of performing the behavior

  • Ask a question about what natural consequences resulted from performing the behavior

  • Connect the behavior to a reinforcer


The natural cycle of behavior7

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

ACTIVITY


The natural cycle of behavior8

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s 10:00 – Math Time

Cues/Prompts

Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts in some way.

Ask a question about necessary action.

Give an option.

Tell the student what action to take.

Physically guide the student through the process.

Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student participates in math lesson

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


The natural cycle of behavior9

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s 10:00 – Math Time

Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson

Modeling

Point out someone who is doing the behavior correctly.

Demonstrate the action that needs to be taken.

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student participates in math lesson

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


The natural cycle of behavior10

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s 10:00 – Math Time

Shaping

Break the task/behavior into smaller steps

Model steps

Have student complete initial or final step

Gradually add steps for student to complete

Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student participates in math lesson

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


The natural cycle of behavior11

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s 10:00 – Math Time

Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson

Wait Time

After questioning/modeling, paraeducator allows adequate time for the student to respond.

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student participates in math lesson

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


The natural cycle of behavior12

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Natural Cue:

It’s 10:00 – Math Time

Intrinsic Reinforcers

Draw attention to the natural consequences of performing the behavior

Ask a question about what natural consequences resulted from performing the behavior

Connect the behavior to a reinforcer

Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson

Does the Student perform the skill correctly?

No

Reinforcer:

Student participates in math lesson

Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer?

No

Student demonstrates behavior independently


Levels of support levels of prompting

Case Scenarios

Works for Me!

  • Think of a student with whom you work

  • Think of a time in the day that is a challenge due to lack of independence in the student

  • Consider the “Natural Cycle of Behavior” and determine how you can build student independence

  • Consider which strategy you will use

  • Complete the blank form based on your case scenario


Case scenarios

Case Scenarios

Works for Me!

With a partner, share a way in which you could use the information learned today…

Consider:

The Strategies for Independence

The Natural Cycle of Behavior

Scaffolding your level of support


Learner outcome

Learner Outcome

Participants will:

  • Identify instructional concepts (cues/prompts, modeling, shaping, wait time, use of reinforcers, and fading of support).

  • Apply these instructional concepts to scenarios as strategies to teach independence.

  • Apply strategies to instruction.


References

References

  • Lifelines, LRConsulting, Katy, TX. Further information is available at www.lrconsulting.com.

  • Larkin, M. J., (2001). Providing support for student independence through scaffolded instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34, (1). p. 30.

  • Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment and Fade Plan presented at the Council for Exceptional Children, April 7, 2005 by Janet Hull, Anne Arundel County Public Schools.

  • Dickson, S. V., chard, D. J., & Simmons, D. C. (1993). An integrated reading/writing curriculum: A focus on scaffolding. LD Forum, 18(4), 12-16.

  • Beed, P., Hawkins, E., & Roller, C., (1991). Moving learners toward independence: The power of scaffolded instruction. The Reading Teacher (44) 9, p. 648-655.


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