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第 2 章 自动识别技术与 RFID PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 2 章 自动识别技术与 RFID. 感知识别技术融合物理世界和信息世界,是物联网区别于其他网络最独特的部分。 本篇从 自动识别技术与 RFID 开始,逐一介绍多样化的信息生成方式。. 内容提要. 本章内容. 2.1 自动识别技术 2.2 RFID 的历史和现状 2.3 RFID 技术分析 2.4 RFID 标签冲突* 2.5 RFID 和物联网 自动识别技术是模式识别理论的典型应用,选取不同的特征产生了多样的自动识别技术。. 光符号识别 & 语音识别. 自动识别技术举例 光符号识别 语音识别 虹膜识别 指纹识别 IC 卡 条形码.

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第 2 章 自动识别技术与 RFID

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2

RFID


RFID


2.1

2.2 RFID

2.3 RFID

2.4 RFID*

2.5 RFID


&

IC

Optical Character RecognitionOCRPattern RecognitionPROCR



IC

  • : ,

  • :

  • :

  • :


IC



Ending

Bifurcation)

Ridge Divergence

Dot or Island :

Enclosure:

Short Ridge:


IC

IC

ICIntegrated Circuit Card

ICICICPC


IC

1

EEPROM


IC

IC

2


IC

3CPU

CPUCPU

  • SIM


CPU

  • IC

  • IC

ICIC


IC


IC

5

1/300


IC

EAN()



IC

QR Code


IC

Aztec CodePDF147DataMatrixQR CodeCode16K

PDF147

Aztec Code

DataMatrix

Code 16K

QR Code


1Code 16KCode 49PDF417

2QR Code

3

Postnet

Code 16K

QR Code


50%


2.1

2.2 RFID

2.3 RFID

2.4 RFID*

2.5 RFID

RFID


2.2 RFID

RFIDRadio Frequency Identification,

90

RFID""


2.2 RFID

RFID

2090RFID

RFID

Dont shoot! Were British!

Oh. Were British too!


Human-implantable RFID

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)

  • In terms of appearance

Chip (IC)

Antenna


Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)

EPC tags ~ 5 cents. 1000 gates ~ 1 cent

Symmetric encryption is also too costly.

We cant fit DES, AES, or SHA-1 in 2000 gates.


2.2 RFID


PROXIMITY CARDS

Note: Often just emit static identifiers, i.e., they are just smart labels!


f

AUTOMOBILE IGNITION KEYS

  • RFID helps secure hundreds of millions of automobiles

    • Cryptographic challenge-response

    • Philips claims more than 90% reduction in car theft thanks to RFID!


Credit CARDS

  • RFID now offered in all major credit cards in U.S.

  • Some problems with first generation [Heydt-Benjamin et al. 07]


Transit CARDS


Passports

  • Dozens of countries issuing RFID-enabled passports

  • PASS card and enhanced drivers licenses (EPC tags)


31 August 2007

22.19 UTC

Okinawa, Japan

Crate #123 arrived

Dock JHS1872H

25 August 2007

06.08 UTC

NYC, USA

Crate #123 loaded

Cargo ship UAYHQUE

22 August 2007

01.28 UTC

Kansas, USA

Crate #123 packed

Factory #18762

Supply-chain visibility


pharmaceuticals

  • Anti-counterfeiting: Better supply-chain visibility means less fraud

    • U.S. FDA urging RFID use to combat counterfeiting of drugs

    • Pharmaceutical companies doing item-level trials with EPC today


2.1

2.2 RFID

2.3 RFID

2.4 RFID*

2.5 RFID

RFID


2.3 RFID

RFID (Reader)RFID


Network

Data

Processing

Reader

01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C

Database

Tag

System Interface

Reader


Asymmetric Channels

Reader

Tag

Eavesdropper

Backward Channel Range (~5m)

Forward Channel Range (~100m)


2.3 RFID

RFIDInterrogator

RS232USBRFID


2.3 RFID

RFID


2.3 RFID

TagRFID


EEPROMEEPROM100,000

FRAM: EEPROMFRAM1001000FRAMFRAM

SRAM: SRAM

SRAM


FRAM

F-RAM[Pb(Zr,Ti)O3]PZTPZT Zr/TiF-RAMPZTF-RAM

FRAMROM,RAMEEPROM, , EEPROMFRAMEEPROM,SRAM


Passive Tag

Active Tag:

Semi-active Tag:


Basic

smart

label

Toll payment

plaque

Automobile

ignition key

Mobile phone


RFID

RFID

RFIDRFID


2.3 RFID

RFIDRFIDRFID125KHz133KHz13.56MHz27.12MHz433MHz860-960MHz2.45GHz5.8GHzRFID


RFID

LF30kHz-300kHzRFID125kHz133kHz1

HF3 MHz -30 MHzRFID13.56MHz1


RFID

UHF300MHz-3GHz3GHzRFIDRFID433MHz860-960MHz2.45GHz5.8GHz302.45GHz5.8GHz

14-610


2.1

2.2 RFID

2.3 RFID

2.4 RFID*

2.5 RFID


2.4 RFID

ALOHA


ALOHA

ALOHA

18.4%

3


ALOHA

ALOHAS-ALOHA

S-ALOHAALOHAS-ALOHA36.8%ALOHA


ALOHAFSA

Frame Slotted Aloha(FSA) NN

Aloha

N

N


ALOHA

Q

FAS2EPCglobal Gen2Q


AlohaRFID


0

01


0

01


EPCglobal RFID

EPCglobalUCCEAN20039

EPCglobalRFIDAuto-IDEPCglobal


EPCElectronic Product CodeEAN.UCC

  • EPC

  • EPC


General Identifier (GID-96)

2.68

16

680


InternetDNSSavantEPCIS

  • EPC

EPC

EPC

Savant


ONS

  • EPCEPCEPCISONSEPCEPCIS


DNS

Domain Name SystemDNSIP

www.baidu.comIP211.94.144.100URLwww.baidu.comDNSIPDNSwww.baidu.comIPIP211.94.144.100


ONS

EPCSavantONSONSEPCEPCISEPCIS


DNSONS

Naming Authority PointerNAPTR


WWWWorld Wide WebEPCglobal Network


The reader is always transmitting a signal. For the tags to send bits to the reader, the reader transmits a fixed carrier signal that carries no bits. The tags harvest this signal to get the power they need to run. It differs from all the other wireless situations. For the reader to decode the incoming signal, it must filter out the outgoing signal that it is transmitting.

EPC Gen 2 Physical Layer


EPC Gen 2 Physical Layer

The reader is always transmitting a signal. For the tags to send bits to the reader, the reader transmits a fixed carrier signal that carries no bits. The tags harvest this signal to get the power they need to run. It differs from all the other wireless situations. For the reader to decode the incoming signal, it must filter out the outgoing signal that it is transmitting.


  • ICRFID

  • RFIDRFIDRFIDRFID


Thank you!


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