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The Bremner Factor for Elucidation of Nitrous Oxide Evolution from Soils PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Bremner Factor for Elucidation of Nitrous Oxide Evolution from Soils . Gary Breitenbeck 1 and Greg McCarty 2 1 School of Plant, Environmental & Soil Sciences Louisiana State University 2 USDA Hydrology & Remote Sensing Laboratory Beltsville MD. The N2O Years. 1977-1987.

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The Bremner Factor for Elucidation of Nitrous Oxide Evolution from Soils

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The bremner factor for elucidation of nitrous oxide evolution from soils

The Bremner Factor for Elucidation of Nitrous Oxide Evolution from Soils

Gary Breitenbeck1 and Greg McCarty2

1School of Plant, Environmental & Soil Sciences Louisiana State University

2USDA Hydrology & Remote Sensing Laboratory Beltsville MD


The n2o years

The N2O Years

1977-1987

77 refereed articles and chapters


The bremner factor for elucidation of nitrous oxide evolution from soils

Alfred Blackmer

(1943-2006)

A special synergy


The bremner factor for elucidation of nitrous oxide evolution from soils

Sources of nitrous oxide in soils

John M. Bremner

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49:7-16, 1997


The bremner factor for elucidation of nitrous oxide evolution from soils

“There is concern that nitrogen fertilization of soils may pose a threat to the stratospheric ozone layer and adversely affect our climate by increasing emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils to the atmosphere through anaerobic reduction of nitrate by denitrifying microorganisms. . .”


The bremner factor for elucidation of nitrous oxide evolution from soils

Measuring ambient N2O

Blackmer, A. M. and Bremner, J. M. Gas chromatographic analysis of soil atmospheres. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41:908-912 (1977).


The bremner factor for elucidation of nitrous oxide evolution from soils

Measuring N2O Flux

Matthias, A. D. Blackmer, A. M., and Bremner, J. M. A simple chamber technique for field measurement of emissions of nitrous oxide from soils. J. Environ. Qual. 9:251-256 (1980).

H & P Mobile Geochemistry, Inc


The bremner factor for elucidation of nitrous oxide evolution from soils

Timing the N2O Flux

~10 AM, all growing season

Matthias, A. D., Blackmer, A. M. and Bremner, J. M. Diurnal variability in the concentration of nitrous oxide in surface air. Geophys. Res. Lett. 6:441-443 (1979)

Bremner, J. M., Robbins, S. G. and Blackmer, A. M. Seasonal variability in emission of nitrous oxide from soil. Geophys. Res. Lett. 7:641-644 (1980).


Nitrification vs denitrification

Nitrification vs. Denitrification

Bremner, J. M and Blackmer, A. M. Nitrous oxide: Emission from soils during nitrification of fertilizer nitrogen. Science 199:295-296 (1978).

Blackmer A M, Bremner J M & Schmidt E L (1980) Production of nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing chemoautotrophic microorganisms in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40: 1060–1066

Most N2O evolved from fertilized soils appeared to evolve during nitrification


Field studies

Field studies

Breitenbeck, G. A., Blackmer, A. M. and Bremner, J. M. Effects of different nitrogen fertilizers on emission of nitrous oxide from soil. Geophys. Res. Lett. 7:85-88 (1980).

Breitenbeck, G. A. and Bremner, J. M. Effects of rate and depth of fertilizer application on emission of nitrous oxide from soil fertilized with anhydrous ammonia. Biol. Fert. Soils 2:201-204 (1986).

Substantially greater emissions from ammonia fertilizers than from nitrate


Field studies1

Field studies

Bremner, J. M., Breitenbeck, G. A. and Blackmer, A. M. Effect of anhydrous ammonia fertilization on emission of nitrous oxide from soils. J. Environ. Qual. 10:77-80 (1981).

Bremner, J. M., Breitenbeck, G. A. and Blackmer, A. M. Effect of nitrapyrin on emission of nitrous oxide from soil fertilized with anhydrous ammonia. Geophys. Res. Lett. 8:353-356 (1981).

Anhydrous NH3 produced substantially greater emissions than other N fertilizers

Addition of nitrapyrin substantially reduced emissions


Lab studies

Lab Studies

Bremner, J. M., Blackmer, A. M. and Waring, S. A. Formation of nitrous oxide and dinitrogen by chemical decomposition of hydroxylamine in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12:263-269 (1980).

Abiotic/biotic production of N2O


Lab studies1

Lab Studies

Blackmer, A. M. and Bremner, J. M. Inhibitory effect of nitrate on reduction of N2O to N2 by soil microorganisms. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10:187-191 (1978).

Gaskell J F, Blackmer A M & Bremner J M (1981) Comparison off effects of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide on reduction of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen by soil microorganisms. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45: 1124–1127

Low nitrate delays

High nitrate strongly inhibits


N2o reviews

N2O Reviews

Bremner, J. M. Effects of soil processes on the atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide. In, Nitrogen in the Environment (D. R. Nielsen and J. G. McDonald, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 477-491. Academic Press, New York (1978).

Bremner, J. M. Effects of soil processes on the atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide. In, Nitrogen in the Environment (D. R. Nielsen and J. G. McDonald, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 477-491. Academic Press, New York (1978).

Bremner, J. M. and Blackmer, A. M. Natural and fertilizer-induced emissions of nitrous oxide from soils. In, Biogenic Emissions of Sulfur, Hydrocarbons, and Nitrogen Gases into the Atmosphere pp. 1-12. APCA Special Publication. Air Pollution Control Association, Pittsburgh (1980).

Bremner, J. M. and Blackmer, A. M. Terrestrial nitrification as a source of atmospheric nitrous oxide. In, Denitrification, Nitrification, and Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (C. C. Delwiche, ed.). pp. 151-170. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1981).


Current trend in n2o emissions

Current Trend in N2O Emissions

Nitrous oxide concentration measured at Baring Head, New Zealand

Source: http://www.niwa.cri.nz/edu/students/change


Mentor

Mentor


Acclaim as a scientist of the 1 st tier

Acclaim as a scientist of the 1st tier


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