America joins the allies
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America Joins the Allies. US Enters war. US attempted to stay neutral and Wilson encouraged neutrality . However in 1914 1/3 rd of Americans were foreign born. Many of these individuals supported their home countries though most sided with Britain and France . 3 positions on war :

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America Joins the Allies

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America joins the allies

AmericaJoinstheAllies


Us enters war

US Enters war

  • US attempted to stay neutral and Wilson encouraged neutrality.

  • However in 1914 1/3rd of Americans were foreign born. Many of these individuals supported their home countries though most sided with Britain and France.

  • 3 positions on war:

    • 1) Isolationists- believed it was none of America’s business.

    • 2) Interventionists- felt US should intervene

    • 3) Internationalists- believed US should play a role and work towards peace but not enter the war.


America joins the allies

Which side should the US pick?

Central Powers:

Allies:

  • Close cultural ties

  • Big business loaned much $ to allies

  • 11 million German-Americans

  • Irish-Americans hated Great Britain

US Exports to both sides:


Why did it take the us so long to get involved

Why did it take the us so long to get involved?

1. Blockades

  • Germany attempted to block British ships carrying supplies in an attempt to starve out the British Isles

  • Germany announced a submarine war around Britain

  • In May, 1915 Germany told Americans to stay off of British ships

  • They could/would sink them


America joins the allies

2. Lusitania

  • Lusitania torpedoed, sinking with 1200 passengers and crew (including 128 Americans)

  • Was eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of ammunition


America joins the allies

3. Allied Pressure

  • Britain and France nearly bankrupt

  • Russian Revolution of 1917: Russia exits war

Petrograd, 4 July 1917. Street demonstration on Nevsky Prospekt just after troops of the Provisional Government have opened fire with machine guns.


The russian revolution

The Russian Revolution

  • Russia was ill-equipped to fight the war and suffered great losses – between 1914-1916 over 6 million casualties - Russia also suffering inflation and hunger

  • Tsarist regime led by Nicholas II pulled away from affairs – a supposed Holy Man named Rasputin became influential to the Tsar, which upset many in Russia – Tsar tried to hold onto autocratic rule


Romanov rasputin

Romanov & Rasputin


The russian revolution1

The Russian Revolution

  • March, 1917, “Peace and Bread” protests in Petrograd

    • Soldiers meant to disperse crowd joined in

    • Duma assumed responsibility and Tsar abdicated

  • New provisional government decided to carry on war to preserve Russian pride

    • Opposed by soviets who wanted to end the war – soviets largely workers and soldiers


The russian revolution2

The Russian Revolution

  • The Bolsheviks

    • Marxist Social Democrats led by Vladimir Lenin – dedicated to violent revolution – Lenin was in hiding until the provisional government came to power, then he was secretly shipped back to begin revolution and to seize power

    • Promised: end to war, redistribution of land, transfer of industries to worker councils, and government power to the soviets – gained popularity among the soviet groups


The russian revolution3

The Russian Revolution

  • Took control of the government on November 6, 1917 with the help of the Petrograd soviets led by Leon Trotsky

    • Lenin the head of the new Council of People’s Commissars - communist


Lenin

Lenin


The russian revolution4

The Russian Revolution

  • Civil War in Russia

    • Not everyone was happy with the new communist government and Allies wanted Russia back in the war

    • The Bolshevik Red Army fought anti-Bolshevik forced known as the White Army – White Army defeated

      • Red Army a disciplined unit while White Army was disorganized and not unified – wanted different ends

      • Red secret police, the Red Terror known as the Cheka, stopped any opposition


The russian revolution5

The Russian Revolution

  • “War communism” – nationalized banks and industries, grain from peasants, and state centralization

  • Against the foreign invaders of the Japanese, French, British, and American who were stationed in Russia – appealed to Russian patriotism

  • Tsar and his family murdered and burnt down in a mine shaft


  • America joins the allies

    4. Zimmerman Note

    • US intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico,

    • It promised Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back in return for an alliance

    • Zimmerman Note + the sinking of 4 unarmed American ships led to a declaration of war by the United States


    America joins the allies

    5. Unlimited Submarine Warfare

    • 1917 Germany announced “unlimited submarine warfare” in the war zone


    A war to make the world safe for democracy

    “…a war to make the world safe, for Democracy”

    “We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them.”

    President Woodrow Wilson, 1917

    Asking the Congress of the United States for a Declaration of War against the Central Powers


    America joins the allies

    “It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war... But the right is more precious then peace and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried in our hearts.“ - Wilson


    America joins the allies

    Wilson Believed the American system would save the world

    1. American economic goods

    2. America's democratic political structure

    3. America's blend of morality and Christianity


    America joins the allies

    Americans in the Trenches


    America joins the allies

    The YanksAre Coming!


    The american expeditionary force

    “The American Expeditionary Force”

    America’s Army had to be built from scratch. Only the USMC had real combat experience -and then only in “ Small Wars” against poorly armed guerillas.

    "90 Day Wonders"

    Minimal training turned civilians into officers, NCO’s and “Doughboys”

    AEF 4 million

    Overseas 2 million

    126,000 Dead

    234,000 Wounded

    A modern military force by 1918 with advanced logistics, tanks, bombers and artillery.

    Cantigny

    St. Mihiel

    Chateau-Thierry

    Argonne


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