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24.1 The Atmosphere

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24.1 The Atmosphere. 1. Define the atmosphere… 2. What molecule has the highest concentration in the atmosphere? ( oxygen, Carbon dioxide, nitrogen?) 3. Why is the atmosphere important? (3 things). The atmosphere is … t he layer of gases that surround the earth.

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1. Define the atmosphere…

2. What molecule has the highest concentration in the atmosphere? ( oxygen, Carbon dioxide, nitrogen?)

3. Why is the atmosphere important? (3 things)

the function of the atmosphere
The Function of the Atmosphere:
  • Holds Heat and helps moderate Earth’s temperatures

b. Provides Protection from …

    • Meteoroids
    • High Energy Radiation (UV rays) from the sun

c. Provides gasses essential for life

    • Oxygen
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Nitrogen
composition of the atmosphere
Composition of the Atmosphere

a. Nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), other gases and water vapor (1%)

b. Suspended Solid and liquid particles Ash and smoke from fires or volcanoes

  • Salt from ocean spray
ozone layer
OZONE LAYER
  • Ozone in Troposphere = “Bad” ozone

1. Acts as greenhouse gas (traps heat) and causes smog.

b. Ozone in Stratosphere= “Good” ozone

1. Made of O3 molecules

2. absorbs UV rays that can be harmful to plants and animals

3. UV radiation is Thermal Energy which warms strato.

c. OZONE HOLE = Thinning of ozone layer

1. Where: over poles

2. Cause:chemicals, CFCs (Chloroflourocarbons), used as coolants in refrigeration and aerosols, get into atmosphere and break apart ozone molecule … allowing more UV in.

air pressure the force on a surface due to the weight of air
Air Pressure: the force on a surface due to the weight of air

a. The atmosphere has weight because of gravity

b. As altitude increases, air pressure and density decreases

c. Measured with a barometer

layers of the atmosphere
Layers of the Atmosphere
  • Troposphere:

1. 0-12km (~ 7 mi)

2. Weather & Clouds

3. Greatest air pressure & density

(Gravity pulls air to surface)

4. Temp. DECREASES

with altitude (As air expands it cools)

stratosphere
Stratosphere
  • 12 km – 50 km(~ 32 mi)
  • Contains ozone layer

3. Temperatures WARM from -57C to 0C.

4. Upper strat. is warmer than lower b/c of OZONE LAYER which is absorbing UV radiation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHtvDA0W34I

mesosphere
Mesosphere

1. 50-80 km (~52 mi),

2. Temps decrease as altitude increases

3. Top of Meso. Is - 90 C

4. Very thin air – moving VERY FAST. Windy (320 km/hr).

5. This burns up meteoroids

thermosphere
Thermosphere

1. OUTER MOST LAYER

2. 80 km – outer space

3. TEMP INCREASES w/ Alititude. ( - 90 C to more than 1000 C)

4. Temps. Increase because gas molecules in this layer absorb solar radiation

ionosphere
Ionosphere
  • Part of THERMOSPHERE
  • Region of charged particles (ions) that overlaps the lower thermoshere.
  • Molecules absorb solar energy and b/cm (+) charged or IONS.
  • Aurora – Charged particles are attracted to E’s mag. Poles – collide w/ ions & glow
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