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THIS IS A STUDY GUIDE , NOT AN ALL INCLUSIVE REVIEW. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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THIS IS A STUDY GUIDE , NOT AN ALL INCLUSIVE REVIEW. THERE MIGHT BE THINGS NOT COVERED BY THIS STUDY GUIDE THAT MIGHT BE ASKED IN YOUR Q UIZZES and TESTS . STUDENTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR STUDYING THEIR TEXT BOOKS AS PER THE COURSE SYLLABUS. LESSON # 3 (Chapter 2).

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This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

  • THIS IS A STUDY GUIDE, NOT AN ALL INCLUSIVE REVIEW.

  • THERE MIGHT BE THINGS NOT COVERED BY THIS STUDY GUIDE THAT MIGHT BEASKED IN YOUR QUIZZES and TESTS.

  • STUDENTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR STUDYING THEIR TEXT BOOKS AS PER THE COURSE SYLLABUS


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

LESSON # 3(Chapter 2)

Chemistry’s Building Block: The Atom


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Life is carried on through chains of chemical reactions

Cells are living things that can respond to their environment. They can move, they can reproduce, and so on. But

How a cell decides to move?

How a cell decides to reproduce?

Cells do what they do as the result of a chain of chemical reactions. In other words, people, plants and animals function at cellular level due to CHEMISTRY


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?

WHAT IS MATTER?

Matter is made of ATOMS

Chemistry is the branch of the Science that concerns withmatter and its transformations.

MATTER: Is the substance of which physical objects are composed. Matter can be defined as anything that takes up space and has mass. Therefore, mass is a measure of quantity of matter in a given object.

Every thing that exists falls into one of two categories: Matter or Energy


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Subatomic particles

ATOM (from Greek “atomos” meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element.

Though “atom” means indivisible, actually atoms are not indivisible. Rather they are composed of constituents parts:

1- Protons

2- Electrons

3- Neutrons


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Protons and neutrons are packed tightly together in a core, the atom’s nucleus

Electrons move around this core some distance away


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

The subatomic particles have mass and electric charge

1- Mass:

The mass of the atom resides within the nucleus ( protons and neutrons ). Electrons are negligible with regard to mass

2- Electric Charges: Protons: Positively charged Electrons: Negatively charged Neutrons: Have no charge, but are electrically neutral.

The number of protons in an atom ( + charges ) is exactly equal to the number of electrons ( - charges ) . Therefore, the atom is electrically neutral.


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

1- THE NATURE OF MATTER IS DEFINED BY THE NUCLEUS: PROTONS AND NEUTRONS

2- THE WAY THAT ELEMENTS COMBINE WITH OTHER ELEMENTS DEPENDS ON ELECTRONS


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

1- THE NATURE OF MATTER IS DEFINED BY THE NUCLEUS: PROTONS AND NEUTRONS

The number of protons in the nucleusis referred as the ATOMIC NUMBERand defines each element. That is to say, each element has one and only one atomic number.

The atomic number of gold is 79, meaning each atom of gold has ____ protons in its nucleus.

79

The atomic number of hydrogen is 1, meaning each hydrogen atom has ___ proton in its nucleus.

1

The atomic number of carbon is 6, meaning each carbon atom has ___ protons.

6


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

Generally, in the nucleus the number of protons is equal to the number of neutrons.

CARBON

Atomic number 6, meaning 6 protons in the nucleus. In the most common form, Carbon has ____ neutrons.

6

LEAD

Atomic number 82, meaning 82 protons in the nucleus. In the most common form, Lead has ____ neutrons

82

Exception: Hydrogen

Atomic number 1, meaning only one proton in the nucleus. The most common form of hydrogen has ___ neutrons.

0


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

When this occurs, the element is still the same element, but now it is called an isotope.

The number of protons and neutrons in one atom is called MASS NUMBER

MASS NUMBER = protons + neutrons

Ex: Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, therefore the mass number of carbon is _____

12

Though usually the number of protons in the nucleus of one specific element is equal to the number of neutrons, in some cases the number of neutrons can be different to the number of protons


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

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CARBON

Atomic number 6, meaning 6 protons in the nucleus. In the most common form, Carbon has 6 neutrons.

Carbon 12: 6 protons + 6 neutrons

However a relative small amount of carbon exists in a form that has 8 neutrons. The element is still carbon because still has 6 protons (remember that the atomic number define the element).

Carbon 14: 6 protons + 8 neutrons

ISOTOPE


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

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Carbon 14 is heavier than Carbon 12

ISOTOPES are atoms that have the same ATOMIC NUMBER but different MASS NUMBER

Isotopes are heavier than the original element because additional neutrons add weight to the atom. Therefore, isotopes have a different mass number.


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

I s o t o p e s o f H y d r o g e n

Most common form

In most elements, the most common form is that one with the same number of protons and neutrons (ex: carbon 12 is much more abundant than carbon 14). Hydrogen is an exception: the moist abundant is the Hydrogen that has one proton and no neutrons.


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

Imaging the Body with Isotopes

The radioactive isotopes technetium 99 was used in a nuclear medicine scan to provide these images of skeletal portions of the human body.

ISOTOPES are unstable.

Unstable atoms are radioactive: their nuclei change or decay by spitting out radiation, in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves, which can be measured by special procedures.

Nuclear Medicine is based in that principle.


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Nucleus

Positron Emission Tomography (PET scanning) to spot a Brain Tumor

The radiation emitted by radioactive isotopes kills cancer cells, therefore they are used in the treatment of cancer.


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

1- THE NATURE OF MATTER IS DEFINED BY THE NUCLEUS: PROTONS AND NEUTRONS

2- THE WAY THAT ELEMENTS COMBINE WITH OTHER ELEMENTS DEPENDS ON ELECTRONS


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Electrons

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2- THE WAY THAT ELEMENTS COMBINE WITH OTHER ELEMENTS DEPENDS ON ELECTRONS

Electrons move around the nucleus in energy levels.

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This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Electrons

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Protons: ___

Neutrons: ___

Electrons: ___

Each energy level requires a different number of electrons to be filled.

First level: 2 electrons

Second level: 8 electrons

Third level: 8 electrons

Argon has atomic number 18

18

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18

Argon is a stable element because its outermost electron shell is filled


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Atoms with the outermost electron shell unfilled are unstableand reactive. Atoms with the outermost electron shell filled are stable and unreactive.

Electrons


This is a study guide not an all inclusive review

Electrons

Atoms attach to one another because they are seeking to fill their outer level or shell

Atoms can fill their last level in two ways:

1- By sharing one or more electrons with another atom

COVALENT BONDING

2- By losing or gaining one electron

IONIC BONDING


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