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6. DESIGN II: DETAILED DESIGN. Software Engineering Roadmap: Chapter 6 Focus. Develop Architecture - see chapter 5. Identify corporate practices. Perform Detailed Design - apply design patterns - accommodate use cases supply methods - exploit libraries (Java, Swing…)

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6 design ii detailed design

6. DESIGN II:DETAILED DESIGN


Software engineering roadmap chapter 6 focus

Software Engineering Roadmap: Chapter 6 Focus

Develop Architecture

- see chapter 5

Identify

corporate

practices

Perform Detailed Design

- apply design patterns

- accommodate use cases

supply methods

- exploit libraries (Java, Swing…)

- describe methods where required

- develop detailed object models

- dev. detailed logic (pseudo-code)

Plan

project

Analyze

requirements

Maintain

Integrate

& test system

Design

Implement

Test units

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Chapter learning goals

Chapter Learning Goals

  • Understand how design patterns describe some detailed designs

  • Specify classes and functions completely

  • Specify algorithms

    • use flowcharts

    • use pseudocode

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


1 introduction to detailed design

1. Introduction to Detailed Design

Objective: To fully prepare for implementation of a system that meets requirements.

Outcomes: (1) blueprints (models),

(2) associated details (documentation),

(3) detailed implementation plan for construction, integration and testing


Relating use cases architecture detailed design

Relating Use Cases, Architecture, & Detailed Design

1. Use case -- analysis

“Cars should be able to travel from the top of Smith Hill at 65 mph, travel in a straight line, and arrive at Jones Hollow within 3 minutes.”

2. Domain

classes

3. Architecure

Cable

Auto

Road

Pylon


Relating use cases architecture detailed design1

Relating Use Cases, Architecture, & Detailed Design

1. Use case (part of requirements)

“Cars should be able to travel from the top of Smith Hill at 65 mph, travel in a straight line, and arrive at Jones Hollow within 3 minutes.”

2. Domain

classes

3. Architecure

Cable

(not specifically required)

Auto

Road

Pylon

4. Detailed

Design

(added for detailed design)

Support use case

Auto

Cable

Guardrail

Road

Smith

Hill

Pylon

Jones Hollow

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


6 design ii detailed design

  • What is the difference between high-level (architectural) design and detailed design?

  • High-Level Design

  • Detailed Design


Typical roadmap for detailed design

Typical Roadmap for Detailed Design

  • 1. Begin with architectural models -- see chapter 5

    • class model: domain & architectural classes

    • overall state model*

    • overall data flow model*

    • use case model

  • 2. Introduce classes & design patterns* which connect the architecture classes with the domain classes -- sections 1 and 5

    • concentrate on riskiest parts first; try alternatives

3. Refine models, make consistent, ensure complete

4. Specify class invariants* -- section 3.1

For each class ...

5. Specify methods with pre- and post-conditions, flowcharts* & pseudocode* -- sections 3 and 4

For each method ...

6. Sketch unit test plans -- see chapter 8

For each unit ...

7. Inspect test plans & design -- section 9

* if applicable

8.Release for implementation

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Organize the team for detailed design 1 2

Organize the Team for Detailed Design 1/2

One way to ...

1. Prepare for a detailed design kick-off meeting.

  • Ensure team members aware of the models (views) they are expected to produce

    • typically object model, sequence diagrams, state, & data flow

  • Ensure team members aware of the notation expected

    • typically: UML plus a pseudocode standard and/or example

  • Design leader prepares list of modules

  • Design leader creates a meeting agenda

  • Project leader allocates time to agenda items

    (people can speak about detailed designs indefinitely if allowed to!)

    • allocate the time among the agenda items

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Organize the team for detailed design 2 2

Organize the Team for Detailed Design 2/2

One way to ...

2. Hold the kick-off meeting

  • Designate someone to monitor the agenda item time

  • Confirm that the architecture is ready for detailed design

    • Make sure that module interfaces the are clear

      • revise as a group if not

    • Don’t try to develop detailed designs as a group

      • not necessary: individuals have the responsibility

      • groups are seldom good at designing details together

  • Allocate modules to members

    • Request time estimates to design lead by a fixed date

  • Write out the conclusions and copy/e-mail every member

  • Decide how and when the results are to be reviewed

    3. Update the documentation set

  • more detailed schedule with modules & inspections

    4. Inspect the detailed designs (see section 9)

    5. Rework as a result of inspections

    6. Conduct post mortem and write out lessons learned

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Unified software development process design

Unified Software Development Process: Design

U. P. Term

Requirements

Analysis

Design

Implemen-

tation

Test

(Jacobson et al)

Inception

Elaboration

Construction

Transition

1*

Jacobson et al:

2

3

Prelim.

iterations

Iter.

#1

Iter.

#n

Iter.

#n+1

Iter.

#m

Iter.

#m+1

Iter.

#k

…..

…..

*Key: terminology used in this book

“Detailed

design”

1 =

“Requirements”

2 =

“Achitecture”

3 =


Analysis

1. Conceptual & abstract

2. Applicable to several designs

3. «control», «entity» & «boundary» class stereotypes

4. Less formal

5. Less expensive to develop

1. Concrete: implementation blueprint

2. Specific for an implementation

3. No limit on class stereotypes

4. More formal

5. More expensive to develop (~ 5 times)

Analysis

Design

1/2

After Jacobson

et al: USDP


Analysis1

6. Outlines the design

7. Emerges from conceptual thinking

8. Flexibility still exists for process modifications

9. Relatively unconstrained

10. Less focus on sequence diagrams

11. Few layers

6. Manifests the design (architecture one view)

7. May use tools (e.g. visual, round-trip engineering)

8. Maintaining estabished process is a high priority

9. Constrained by the analysis & architecture

10. More focus on seq. diag.

11. Many layers

Analysis

Design

2/2

After Jacobson

et al: USDP


Designing against interfaces

Designing Against Interfaces

Client code

Used code

Abstract layer

BillingClient

listCustomers()

billCustomers()

Customer

bill()

printAccounts()

-- written in terms of Customer (not specific types of Customer)

Concrete (non-abstract) layer

RegularCustomer

bill()

printAccounts()

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Reusing components

Reusing Components

  • Functionality we need is becoming more convenient to locate and reuse

    • Microsoft MFC library

    • Visual Basic controls

    • COM objects

    • OMG’s CORBA

    • Javascript and Java Applet libraries

    • JavaBeans (servlet code)

    • Enterprise JavaBeans


2 sequence and data flow diagrams for detailed design

2. Sequence and data flow diagrams for detailed design


Refine models for detailed design 1 2 sequence diagrams

Refine Models for Detailed Design1/2: Sequence Diagrams

One way to ...

1. Begin with the sequence diagrams constructed for detailed requirements and/or architecture (if any) corresponding to the use cases.

2. Introduce additional use cases, if necessary, to describe how parts of the design typically interact with the rest of the application.

3. Provide sequence diagrams with complete details

  • be sure that the exact objects & their classes are specified

  • select specific function names in place of natural language

    (calls of one object to another to perform an operation)

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


6 design ii detailed design

Refine Models for Detailed Design2/2: Data Flow Diagrams

One way to ...

1. Gather data flow diagrams (DFD’s) constructed for detailed requirements and/or architecture (if any).

2. Introduce additional DFD’s, if necessary, to explain data and processing flows.

3. Indicate what part(s) of the other models the DFD’s corresponds to.

  • e.g., “the following DFD is for each Account object”

    4. Provide all details on the DFD’s

  • indicate clearly the nature of the processing at each node

  • indicate clearly the kind of data transmitted

  • expand processing nodes into DFD’s if the processing description requires more detail

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Requirements sequence diagram for engage foreign character use case

Requirements: Sequence Diagram for Engage Foreign Character Use Case

:Encounter

Game

freddie:

Foreign

Character

:Engagement

:Engagement

Display

:Player

Character

1.1 create; display

1.2 create

2.1 execute

2.2 change quality values

3.1 Display result

3.2 create

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Design sequence diagram for encounter foreign character use case

Design: Sequence Diagram for Encounter Foreign Character Use Case

:Encounter

game

:Encounter

Cast

freddie:

Foreign

Character

engagement:

Engagement

1.1 displayForeignChar()

:Engagement

Display

1.2 display()

1.3 new Engagement()

2. execute()

:Player’s

main

character

2.1 setPlayerQuality()

2.2 setQuality()

2.3 setForeignQuality()

3.1 new EngagementDisplay()

2.4 setQuality()

3.2 displayResult()

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Classes of the encounterforeigncharacter use case

Classes of the EncounterForeignCharacter Use Case

EngagementDisplay

displayResult()

Engagement

execute()

EncounterGame

PlayerCharacter

setQuality()

EncounterCast

displayForeignChar()

setPlayerQuality()

setForeignQuality()

ForeignCharacter

setQuality()

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Detailed data flow diagram for a banking application

Account

Cus-

tomer

screen

template

unacceptable

ATM users

local

log

Deposit-

screen.

display()

Account.

getPass-

word()

Account.

verifyPass-

word()

status

pass-

word

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.

Detailed Data Flow Diagram for a Banking Application

Customer.

getDetails()

Account.

getDeposit()

customer info

User


Crc cards

CRC Cards

  • Class Responsibility and Collaboration cards provide an effective technique for exploring the possible ways of allocating responsibilities to classes and the collaborations that are necessary to fullfil the responsibilities.

  • A helpful demonstration:

    • http://www.csd.abdn.ac.uk/~ecompata/teaching/CS3015/information/crc.shtml


Design refinement with crc cards

Design Refinement with CRC Cards

  • Exercise:

  • Use Case: You are registering for a new course in astronomy. You require permission from the instructor and you must interact with the registrars office to signup and pay for the course.

  • Develop the classes and responsibilities using CRC cards


3 specifying classes and functions

3. Specifying classes and functions


6 design ii detailed design

Specify A Class

One way to ...

1. Gather the attributes listed in the SRS.

  • if the SRS is organized by class

    2. Add additional attributes required for the design.

    3. Name a method corresponding to each of the requirements for this class.

  • easy if the SRS is organized by class

    4. Name additional methods required for the design.

    5. Show the attributes & methods on the object model.

    6. State class invariants.

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Specify a function

Specify a Function

One way to ...

1. Note the section(s) of the SRS or SDD which this function (method) satisfies.

2. State what expressions the function must leave invariant.

3. State the method’s pre-conditions (what it assumes).

4. State the method’s post-conditions (its effects).

5. Provide pseudocode and/or a flowchart to specify the algorithm to be used.

  • unless very straightforward

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Classes at detailed design

Classes at Detailed Design

Data type

Range

Default value

Security issues

Canister

Class name

+ numCanisters: int

- numWafers: int

- size: float

Attribute: type

+: visible

from without

+ display()

- getNumSlotsOpen()

+ setStatus()

Operations

Interface specs

Functional

details

Invariants

Responsibilities:

-- describes each

canister undergoing

fabrication

Place for

comments

Instance details

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


4 specifying algorithms

4. Specifying algorithms


Flowchart example for setname

Parameter & settings make

sense?

Flowchart Examplefor setName()

N

Y

Nominal path

Set _name to

“defaultName"

Parameter name too long?

N

Y

protected final void setName( String aName )

{

// Check legitimacy of parameter and settings

if( ( aName == null ) || ( maxNumCharsInName() <= 0 ) ||

( maxNumCharsInName() > alltimeLimitOfNameLength() ) )

{ _name = new String( "defaultName" );

System.out.println

( "defaultName selected by GameCharacter.setName()");

}

else

// Truncate if aName too long

if( aName.length() > maxNumCharsInName() )

_name = new String

( aName.getBytes(), 0, maxNumCharsInName() );

else // assign the parameter name

_name = new String( aName );

}

Set _name

to parameter

Truncate

name

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Pseuodocode example

Pseuodocode Example

  • FOR number of microseconds supplied by operator

    • IF number of microseconds exceeds critical value

      • Try to get supervisor's approval

      • IF no supervisor's approval

        • abort with "no supervisor approval for unusual

        • duration" message ENDIF ENDIF

See later section tbd for inspection results of this pseudocode

. . . .


Pseudocode extraction

Pseudocode Extraction

  • //p FOR number of microseconds supplied by operator

  • for( int i = 0; i < numMicrosecs; ++I ) {

    • //p IF number of microseconds exceeds critical value

    • if( numMicrosecs >

    • XRayPolicies.CRITICAL_NUM_MICROSECS )

      • //p Try to get supervisor's approval

      • int supervisorMicrosecsApproval =

      • getApprovalOfSuperForLongExposure();

      • //p IF no supervisor approval

      • if( supervisorMicrosecsApproval <= 0 )

      • throw ( new SupervisorMicrosecsApprovalException() );

  • . . . . . . . . .

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Advantages of pseudocode flowcharts

Advantages of Pseudocode & Flowcharts

  • Clarify algorithms in many cases

  • Impose increased discipline on the process of documenting detailed design

  • Provide additional level at which inspection can be performed

    • Help to trap defects before they become code

    • Increases product reliability

  • May decrease overall costs

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Disadvantages of pseudocode flowcharts

Disadvantages of Pseudocode & Flowcharts

  • Creates an additional level of documentation to maintain

  • Introduces error possibilities in translating to code

  • May require tool to extract pseudocode and facilitate drawing flowcharts

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


5 design patterns ii techniques of detailed design

5. Design Patterns II: Techniques of detailed design


Apply design patterns in detailed design

Apply Design Patterns in Detailed Design

One way to ...

1. Become familiar with the design problems solved by design patterns

  • at a minimum, understand the distinction among (C) creational vs. (S) structural vs. (B) behavioral patterns

    Consider each part of the detailed design in turn:

    2. Determine whether the problem has to do with (C) creating something complex, (S) representing a complex structure, or (B) capturing behavior

    3. Determine whether there is a design patterns that addresses the problem

  • try looking in the category identified (C, S, or B)

    • use this book and/or Gamma et al [Ga]

      4. Decide if benefits outweigh drawbacks

  • benefits usually include increased flexibility

  • drawbacks increased class complexity(?), less efficient(?)

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


User interface design

User Interface Design

  • System users often judge a system by its interface rather than its functionality

  • A poorly designed interface can cause a user to make catastrophic errors

  • Poor user interface design is the reason why so many software systems are never used


User centred design

User-Centred design

  • User-centred design is an approach to UI design where the needs of the user are paramount and where the user is involved in the design process

  • UI design always involves the development of prototype interfaces

  • See UI_design.ppt


7 standards notation and tools for detailed design

7. Standards, notation and tools for detailed design


Ieee 1016 1987 software design document table of contents reaffirmed 1993

IEEE 1016-1987 Software Design Document Table of Contents (Reaffirmed 1993)

1. Introduction

1.1.Purpose

1.2.Scope

1.3.Definitions, acronyms

& abbreviations

2. References

3. Decomposition description

3.1.Module decomposition

3.1.1 Module 1 description

3.1.1 Module 2 description

3.2 Concurrent process

decomposition

3.2.1 Process 1 description

3.2.2 Process 2 description

3.3 Data decomposition

3.3.1 Data entry 1 description

3.3.2 Data entry 2 description

4. Dependency description

4.1 Intermodule dependencies

4.2 Interprocess dependencies

4.3 Data dependencies

5. Interface description

5.1 Module interface

5.1.1 Module 1 description

5.1.2 Module 2 description

5.2 Process interface

5.2.1 Process 1 description

5.2.2 Process 2 description

6. Detailed design

6.1 Module detailed design

6.1.1 Module 1 detail

6.2.2 Module 2 detail

6.2 Data detailed design

6.2.1 Data entity 1 detail

6.2.2 Data entity 2 detail

Architecture

  • Can be replaced with:

  • 6.1 Class#1 detailed design

    • 6.1.1 Attributes

    • 6.1.2 Methods

    • 6.1.3 Instance details

    • 6.1.4. Other:

    • - UI details (if applicable)


8 effects on projects of completing detailed designs

8. Effects on projects of completing detailed designs


Bring the project up to date after completing detailed design

Bring the ProjectUp-to-Date After Completing Detailed Design

1. Make sure the SDD reflects latest version of detailed design, as settled on after inspections.

2. Give complete detail to the schedule (SPMP).

3. Allocate precise tasks to team members (SPMP).

4. Improve project cost & time estimates (see below).

5. Update the SCMP to reflect the new parts.

6. Review process by which the detailed design was created, & determine improvements. Include ...

  • time taken; broken down to include

    • preparation of the designs

    • inspection

    • change

  • defect summary

    • number remaining open, found at detailed design, closed at detailed design

    • where injected; include previous phases & detailed design stages

One way to ...

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Estimate size time from detailed designs

Estimate Size & Time from Detailed Designs

One way to ...

1. Start with the list of methods

  • ensure completeness, otherwise underestimate will result

    2. Estimate the lines of code (LOC) for each

  • classify as very small, small, medium, large, very large

    • normally in ± 7% / 24% / 38% / 24% / 7% proportions

  • use personal data to covert to LOC

    • otherwise use Humphry’s table below

      3. Sum the LOC

      4. Covert LOC to person-hours

  • use personal conversion factor if possible

    • otherwise use published factor

      5. Ensure that your estimates of method sizes and time will be compared and saved at project end.

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


9 quality in detailed designs

9. Quality in detailed designs


Inspect detailed designs 1 of 2

Inspect‡ Detailed Designs 1 of 2

One way to ...

1. Prepare to record metrics during the design process.

  • Include (1.1) time taken; (1.2) type of defect; (1.3) severity

    2. Ensure each architecture module is expanded.

    3. Ensure each detail is part of the architecture.

  • if a detail does not belong to any such module, the architecture may have to be revised

    4. Ensure the design fulfills its required functions

    5. Ensure that design is complete (classes & methods)

    6. Ensure that the design is testable.

‡ See chapter 1 for inspection procedures.

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Inspect detailed designs 2 of 2

Inspect Detailed Designs 2 of 2

7. Check detailed design for --

  • simplicity

    a design that few can understand (after a legitimate effort!) is expensive to maintain, and can result in defects

  • generality

    enables design of similar applications?

  • expandability

    enables enhancements?

  • efficiency

    speed, storage

  • portability

    8. Ensure all details are provided

  • only code itself is excluded as a “detail”

  • the detail work must be done eventually, and this is the best time to do it: don’t postpose

One way to ...

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Inspection for defects

Inspection for Defects

  • Identify defect and its type

  • Specify its severity (two methods following slides)

  • Identify the source of the defect – so that the defect does not occur in another project

  • At another time, usually one person works on a resolution to defect


6 design ii detailed design

Severity

Description

Urgent

Failure causes system crash, unrecoverable data loss; or jeopardizes personnel

High

Causes impairment of critical system functions, and no workaround solution does exist

Medium

Causes impairment of critical system functions, though a workaround solution does exist

Low

Causes inconvenience or annoyance

None

None of the above

Table 6.2 IEEE 1044.1 Severity classification

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


6 design ii detailed design

Severity

Description

Major

Requirement(s) not satisfied

Medium

Neither major nor trivial

Trivial

A defect which will not affect operation or maintenance

Table 6.3 Defect severity classification using Triage

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Types of defects 1 ieee

Types of Defects (1) (IEEE)

  • [PS] Logic problem (forgotten cases or steps; duplicate logic; extreme conditions neglected; unnecessary functions; misinterpretation; missing condition test; checking wrong variable; iterating loop incorrectly etc.)

  • [PS] Computational problem (Equation insufficient or incorrect; precision loss; sign convention fault)

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Types of defects 3

Types of Defects (3)

  • [XDOC, PS] Data problem (sensor data incorrect or missing; operator data incorrect or missing; embedded data in tables incorrect or missing; external data incorrect or missing; output data incorrect or missing; input data incorrect or missing)

  • [XDOC, PS] Documentation problem (ambiguous statement etc.)

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Types of defects 4

Types of Defects (4)

  • [XDOC, PS] Document quality problem (Applicable standards not met etc.)

  • [XDOC, PS] Enhancement (change in program requirements etc.)

  • [XDOC, PS] Failure caused by a previous fix

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Types of defects 5

Types of Defects (5)

  • [PS] Suspect performance problem (inefficient logic, data structure)

  • [XDOC, PS] Interoperability problem (not compatible with other software or component)

  • [XDOC, PS] Standards conformance problem

Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


Pseudocode for inspection

Pseudocodefor Inspection

  • IFaQuality is not recognized

    • Log error to log file

    • Inform user qualities unchanged

  • ELSE

  • IFaQualityValue out of bounds

    • Log error to log file

    • Inform user qualities unchanged

  • ELSE

    • Set the stated quality to aQualityValue

    • Reduce the remaining qualities,

    • ... retaining their mutual proportion,

    • ... making the sum of qualities unchanged

  • ENDIF

  • ENDIF

  • 1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    setQuality() should be mentioned

    Make these preconditions; don’t check.

    Lacks detail on how to allocate the remaining quality values

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Case study

    Case Study


    Detailed design of roleplayinggame package

    Detailed Design of RolePlayingGame Package

    GameState

    handleEvent()

    RPGame

    handleEvent()

    state

    { state.handleEvent(); }

    . . . .


    Detailed design of roleplayinggame package1

    Detailed Design of RolePlayingGame Package

    MouseListener

    { rPGameS.handleEvent(); }

    rPGameS

    RPGMouseEventListener

    mouseEnter()

    GameState

    handleEvent()

    RPGame

    handleEvent()

    stateS

    { stateS.handleEvent(); }

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Sequence diagram for handling mouse events

    Sequence Diagram forHandling Mouse Events

    User

    eventTarget

    :GameState

    :RPGame

    :RPGMouseEventListener

    1. mouse

    action

    2. mouseClicked()

    3. handleEvent

    ( Event )

    4. handleEvent

    ( Event)

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Rpg video game architecture packages showing domain classes only

    RPG Video Game Architecture Packages -- showing domain classes only

    RolePlayingGame

    «framework package»

    Characters

    «framework package»

    EncounterGame

    «uses»

    «application package»

    EncounterCharacters

    «uses»

    EncounterGame

    Engagement

    «application package»

    EngagementDisplay

    EncounterCharacter

    GameEnvironment

    PlayerCharacter

    «framework package»

    ForeignCharacter

    EncounterEnvironment

    «uses»

    PlayerQualityWindow

    «application package»

    Area

    EncounterAreaConnection

    GameArtifacts

    ConnectionHyperlink

    «framework package»

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Detailed design of encountergamedisplays sub package

    Detailed Design of EncounterGameDisplays Sub-package

    MouseListener

    EncounterGameDisplays

    EncounterCast

    EncounterDisplayItem

    EncounterDisplay

    QualListDispl

    SetQualValueDispl

    QualValueDispl

    Reporting

    handleEvent()

    EngagementDisplay

    Preparing

    handleEvent()

    SetQualityDisplay

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Sequence diagram for dismissing engagement display

    Sequence Diagram forDismissing Engagement Display

    User

    :EngagementDisplay

    :RPGMouse

    EventListener

    1. hit

    dismiss

    button

    :ReportingEncounter

    2. mouseClicked()

    :EncounterGame

    3. handleEvent()

    4. handleEvent()

    5. setVisible( false )

    6. setState

    (new Waiting())

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Sequence diagram for player completes setup

    Sequence Diagram for Player Completes Setup

    User

    :PlayerQualityWindow

    :SettingUp

    :RPGMouse

    EventListener

    1. hit

    dismiss

    button

    2. mouseClicked()

    :EncounterGame

    3. handleEvent()

    4. handleEvent()

    5. setVisible( false )

    6. setState

    (new Waiting())

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Sequence diagram for player moves to adjacent area

    Sequence Diagram for Player Moves to Adjacent Area

    User

    :AreaConnectionHyperlink

    :EncounterCast

    :Waiting

    1. hit

    area

    connection

    hyperlink

    :RPGMouse

    EventListener

    :EncounterEnvironment

    :EncounterGame

    2. mouseClicked()

    3. handleEvent()

    4. handleEvent()

    5. setVisible( false )

    6. displayArea()

    7. displayPlayerCharacter()

    If foreign character present

    8. displayForeignCharacter()

    9. setState

    (new Engaging())

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Detailed design of encountercharacters package

    Detailed Design of EncounterCharacters Package

    Characters

    «framework package»

    GameCharacter

    EncounterCharacters

    «application package»

    EncounterCharacter

    PlayerCharacter

    «facade»

    EncounterCast

    ForeignCharacter

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


    Encounterenvironment package

    EncounterEnvironment Package

    GameEnvironment

    GameCharacter

    GameArea

    GameAreaConnection

    . . . .


    Encounterenvironment package1

    EncounterEnvironment Package

    GameEnvironment

    GameCharacter

    GameArea

    GameAreaConnection

    Area

    EncounterAreaConnection

    EncounterEnvironment

    ConnectionHyperlink

    EncounterEnvironment

    Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.


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