The Rise of The Third Reich. Discontent in Germany was deep-rooted and growing Demoralizing defeat in World War I Treaty of Versailles (June 1919) created anger and humiliation. Treaty of Versailles.
Discontent in Germany was deep-rooted and growing
Demoralizing defeat in World War I
Treaty of Versailles (June 1919) created anger and humiliation
Lloyd George of Britain, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the United States: In 1919, the Big 4 met in Paris to negotiate the treaty.
Germany lost territories and colonial possessions
the military was limited
Germany had to pay huge amounts for war compensations
“war guilt clause” said,
“Germany must accept complete and total responsibility for the war”
In German classrooms teachers encouraged students to value obedience and respect authority
Albert Einstein claimed
his teachers were more
interested in producing “mental machines” than educating human beings
World wide depression
Setting of psychological and economic woes
Germans wanted a leader who could restore their pride and give them hope
Hitler fired a shot at the ceiling and declared that the President (Ebert) and national government had been deposed
Two days later Hitler was arrested and brought to trial
He was given the minimum sentence,
5 years in prison and served 9 months
Hess, another prisoner. Hess
helped Hitler write Mein Kampf,
“My Struggle” published in 1925.
This became the guidebook for
He targeted Jews in his campaign of purification
Secondary targets: communists, homosexuals, handicapped, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and political opponents of Nazi doctrine
1929 A world wide depression began Europe spreading his views
The chancellor of the Weimar Republic was Herman Mueller (a Social Democrat). He and his party were in trouble.
In the elections of 1930 the National Socialist Party (Nazis) emerged as the second most powerful party.
1932 Paul von Hindenburg, Europe spreading his views
84 years old, was re-elected president.
He chose Franz von Papen as the new chancellor.
Paul von Hindenburg
When Papen couldn’t end the depression Europe spreading his views, another friend of Hindenburg’s took over
General Kurt von Schleich. He couldn’t bring about recovery either
Franz von Papen
January 30, 1933 Hitler and thought he would be less “wild” once he was in office
Hitler, after being sworn in as chancellor as it passes under the window of Hitler’s new office.
February 1, 1933 as it passes under the window of Hitler’s new office. - Hitler proclaimed his new government officially in power
He did this over the radio instead of in front of the Reichstag, the elected Parliament
The meaning was clear: Hitler no longer needed a Parliament
Once he became Chancellor Hitler began to dismantle democratic practices in Germany
One of Hitler’s first acts as chancellor was to build the concentration camp at Dachau in March 1933
Jews, communists, and homosexuals were some of the first incarcerated there.
Government limited the number of Jews who could attend a public high school or teach in one
Forced Jews and other non-Aryans out of civil service jobs.
This was the first of over 200 pieces of legislation passed in Germany from 1933 to 1939 designed to segregate, isolate, and demoralize German Jews.
The Nazis burned books written by Jews and other “undesirables”
More than 20,000 books were burned outside a university in Berlin
Permitted the government to sterilize anyone who suffered from “genetically determined” illnesses
The law was an attempt to create a racially pure society of Aryans
Nuremberg Race Laws Enacted
Stripped German Jews of citizenship and all political rights
Mischling Laws specified who was considered Jewish: anyone with even one Jewish grandparent
1936 OffspringThe Olympics took place in Germany. Hitler hid his plans and overt acts. After the Olympics attacks escalated.
Hitler at the opening of the Olympic Games in Berlin, August, 1936
New Offspringprisoners are registered1937 Buchenwald concentration camp built