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The Cougar Approach to In-Network Query Processing in Sensor Networks By Yong Yao and Johannes Gehrke Cornell University

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The Cougar Approach to In-Network Query Processing in Sensor Networks By Yong Yao and Johannes Gehrke Cornell University. Presented by Penelope Brooks. Overview. Motivation Sensor Networks Overview Applications Sensor Data Problems in Sensor Networks Cougar Architecture Approach

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The Cougar Approach to In-Network Query Processing in Sensor NetworksBy Yong Yao and Johannes GehrkeCornell University

Presented by Penelope Brooks

overview
Overview
  • Motivation
  • Sensor Networks Overview
  • Applications
  • Sensor Data
  • Problems in Sensor Networks
  • Cougar
    • Architecture
    • Approach
  • Related Projects
motivation
Motivation
  • Distributed database approach to sensor networks
  • Why?
    • Declarative queries are well-suited to sensor networks
    • Energy conservation in sensor networks is crucial
the big idea
The Big Idea

Local computation is much cheaper than communication, so push computation to the network and improve energy consumption

sensor networks overview
Sensor Networks Overview
  • Thousands of sensors connected through wireless communication
    • Multi-hop routing protocol used
    • Limited computation and storage
    • Limited energy supply
  • Sensor nodes connected to one or more physical sensors
  • Distributed to measure and monitor physical environment
  • Communication and computation biggest energy drains
challenges
Challenges
  • Communication
  • Power consumption
  • Computation
  • Uncertainty in sensor readings
some applications
Some Applications
  • Besides temperature…
  • Intelligent building management
  • Hostile environments
    • Battlefield
    • Disaster regions/Early warning systems
  • Tracking items in transit
  • Automatic target recognition and tracking
sensor data
Sensor Data
  • Uncertainty of data values
    • Measurements accurate within range
    • Addressed by aggregation
  • Historically - sensor networks collect data and transfer to central node for querying and analysis
problems in sensor networks
Problems in Sensor Networks
  • Aggregation
    • Must complete at leader node
    • Data has to be delivered from source nodes
    • Computation approaches
      • Send all data to leader and compute there
      • Some computation at nodes along path
  • Query Languages
    • Diverse applications, data, query classes
    • Look at properties of sensor data, abstract computational patterns that fit
problems in sensor networks cont d
Problems in Sensor Networks (cont’d)
  • Query Optimization
    • Large space of possible query plans
    • Cost of plan is energy consumed
    • Make decisions with uncertainty
  • Catalog Management
    • Metadata for optimizer
    • Sensor position, density, connectivity, system workload, network stability
  • Multi-Query Optimization
    • Share results from similar queries
cougar architecture
Cougar Architecture
  • Loosely-coupled, distributed
  • Supports in-network computation
  • Query optimizer on sensor gateway
    • Describes data flow in network
    • Computation flow in each sensor
  • Query proxies on sensor nodes
    • Register query
    • Create local operator tree
    • Activate relevant sensors
    • Return applicable results

contribution

contribution

cougar architecture12
Cougar Architecture

Query Optimizer

here

Query Proxy Layer

here

approach
Approach
  • Query presented to optimizer
  • Query optimizer
    • Merge with existing query

OR

    • Generate new query plan
approach cont d
Approach (cont’d)
  • Designate leader for computation
    • Methods
      • Fixed
      • Randomly selected node
    • Leader selection policy
      • Dynamically maintained in case of failure
      • Minimize communication distance
  • Two plans: leader, other
  • Query plans disseminated to all nodes
query plan

Select

Aggregate

Operator

Network

Interface

Query Plan

QPL

Towards the gateway

QPO

Towards the leader

Aggregated

Results

In-network

aggregation

Partially aggregated

data from other

sensors

Data from

local sensor

Partially

aggregated

results

Network

Interface

Sensor

scan

example
Example
  • Query Q:
    • Monitor office temperature
    • Generate notification to administrator when temperature over threshold
  • Optimize query
  • Query Plan QP generated, leader identified, computation plans generated
  • Query plans disseminated
  • Query proxy actions initiated
example cont d
Example (cont’d)
  • Sensors collect temperature
  • Leader aggregates sensors readings, performs AVG
  • Aggregate value compared to initial condition of query Q
  • If AVG > threshold
    • Value sent to gateway
    • Administrator notified
  • Otherwise, sensors continue
another example
Another Example

TinyDB: An Acquisitional Query Processing System for Sensor Networks

SAMUEL R. MADDEN, MICHAEL J. FRANKLIN, JOSEPH M. HELLERSTEIN, and WEI HONG

ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 30, No. 1, March 2005, Pages 122–173.

related projects
Related Projects
  • CoSense - Xerox PARC
  • SCADDS - UCLA
  • WebDust - Rutgers
  • Agent-based Tasking of Massive Sensor Networks - Univ of MD
  • Reactive Sensor Networks - Penn State
  • TinyOS - Berkeley
  • Telegraph - Berkeley
  • Location-Centric Distributed Computation and Signal Processing - Wisconsin
wrap up
Wrap-Up
  • Cougar is one possible architecture for a sensor network
  • Performs in-network computation
  • Decreases energy consumption
  • One leader per query plan
  • Attempt to merge similar queries
  • Propagate results to system if condition met
ad