Pregnancy renal transplantation
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Pregnancy & Renal Transplantation. Alicia Notkin May 20, 2008. Case.

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Pregnancy & Renal Transplantation

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Pregnancy renal transplantation

Pregnancy & Renal Transplantation

Alicia Notkin

May 20, 2008


Pregnancy renal transplantation

Case

A 30 year old female w/ ESRD, s/p LDRT from her mother 3 years prior, comes to clinic for f/u. She is fully compliant with her regimen of prednisone 5mg daily, tacro 3mg q12h, and MMF 1g q12h. Her renal function has been stable, with a Cr ~ 1.2 mg/dl and a negative UA. She wishes to become pregnant. How should she be advised & managed?


Outline

Outline

  • Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease

  • Pregnancy in patients on dialysis

  • Pregnancy in renal transplant patients

  • Transplantation medications in pregnancy

  • Recommendations

  • Other issues: graft dysfunction in pregnancy, donor & pregnancy, male fertility


Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease patient considerations

Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease: patient considerations

  • Permanent decline in renal function in 0-10% of women with normal to mildly reduced renal function

  • Patients w/ moderate renal insufficiency may initially have decline in Cr, but may rise above baseline over rest of pregnancy (in a small study, 40% of patients w/ a Cr from 1.4-1.9 mg/dl had rise in Cr)

  • Women w/ Cr > 3.0 mg/dl have menstrual abnormalities & have much lower chance of conception & carrying fetus to term


Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease other patient considerations

Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease: other patient considerations

  • Proteinuria increases in ~ ½ of the patients

  • Hypertension develops or worsens in ~ ¼ of the patients

  • Significant worsening of edema can occur during pregnancy in women w/ nephrotic syndrome

  • Β-HCG can be increased in patients w/ ESRD, so confirm pregnancy w/ an ultrasound


Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease fetal outcomes

Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease: fetal outcomes

  • If blood pressure is controlled, rate of live births is > 90% in women w/ normal renal function & is slightly lower in women w/ mild renal insufficiency

  • Lower fetal survival if bp not controlled (10-fold increase if MAP > 105 at conception)

  • Higher risk of prematurity if Cr > 1.4 (59% v. 10%) – increased risk of preeclampsia & IUGR


Pregnancy in patients on dialysis

Pregnancy in patients on dialysis

  • Conception occurs in 0.3-1.5% of women of childbearing age per year (disrupted gonadal function)

  • Live births occur in 40-50%

  • Prematurity occurs in most (average age at delivery is ~ 30.5 weeks)

  • Increased risk for severe hypertension

  • Similar outcomes in HD & PD patients

  • More intensive dialysis recommended (5-7x/wk to keep BUN under 45-50); more frequent, lower volume exchanges if on PD

  • Avoid hemodynamic instability & monitor the fetus during treatment


Pregnancy in renal transplant patients outcomes

Pregnancy in renal transplant patients: outcomes

  • Fertility returns!

  • > 90% success after 1st trimester; slight increase in spontaneous abortion

  • IUGR a/o premature delivery in up to 20% & 50%, respectively (some say as much as 1/2-2/3 cases)

  • US & UK registries suggest ~ 14% spontaneous abortion, high prevalence of hypertension, increased preeclampsia (~ 1/3)

  • Developmental delays related to prematurity

  • Fewer complications & birth abnormalities than dialysis patients


Pregnancy in renal transplant patients outcomes1

Pregnancy in renal transplant patients: outcomes

  • Increased risk of graft loss if Cr > 1.5 mg/dl before pregnancy

  • No large, long-term controlled studies looking at GFR & proteinuria in graft recipients who have become pregnant (varying results)

  • Birth weight & gestational age seem to be lower in pancreas-kidney transplants than in kidney alone


Pregnancy in renal transplant patients outcomes2

Pregnancy in renal transplant patients: outcomes

  • One of the best studies we have: case-control study from 1 center in Israel

  • Included patients transplanted between ’83 & ’98

  • Looked at 39 women who became pregnant (44% received CRT, 43.6% had glomerular disease originally, average age 24, most at least 2 years out)

  • Each matched w/ 3 controls from the Collaborative Transplant Study database for 12 factors known to affect graft survival (donor type, ethnic origin, transplant #, year transplanted, donor & recipient ages, IS regimen, CIT, HLA mismatch, PRA, underlying disease, duration of functioning graft from transplant to pregnancy)

  • IS regimen: 26 on CsA/AZA/pred, 7 on AZA/pred, 4 on CsA/pred, 2 on CsA/AZA

  • F/u of 15 years


Rahamimov r et al transplantation 2006

Rahamimov, R et al, Transplantation 2006


Rahamimov r et al 2006

Rahamimov, R et al 2006

  • Similar graft and patient survival (62 & 85% v. 69 & 79%)

  • Similar kidney function 1, 5, & 10 years post-transplant

  • Preterm delivery in 60%

  • Preeclampsia in 15.3%

  • IUGR in 52%

  • No acute rejection


Pregnancy in renal transplant patients outcomes mckay db et al nejm 2006 review

Pregnancy in renal transplant patients: outcomes McKay, DB et al, NEJM 2006 (review)


Mckay db et al nejm 2006

McKay, DB et al, NEJM 2006


Mckay db et al nejm 20061

McKay, DB et al, NEJM 2006


Mckay db et al transplantation 2006

McKay, DB et al, Transplantation 2006


Transplant medications steroids

Transplant medications: steroids

  • Associations noted between prednisone & a variety of birth defects (but mainly @ doses > 20 mg/d)

  • Retrospective data suggest an increased risk of cleft palate w/ glucocorticoids

  • Possible increased risk of PROM & IUGR w/ glucocorticoids

  • Glucocorticoids are excreted in breast milk (small amounts), but considered ok if needed by mother


Transplant medications cyclosporine

Transplant medications: cyclosporine

  • Can induce/worsen hypertension

  • Drug levels may fall during pregnancy

  • Premature labor and infants that are small for gestational age have been reported (possible confounders)


Transplant medications cyclosporine1

Transplant medications: cyclosporine

  • 115 renal transplant recipients (154 pregnancies): CsA v. AZA/pred

  • CsA had lower birth weights, more maternal DM/htn/rejection, but complication rate in newborns was slightly lower & congenital malformations were not seen

  • Meta-analysis of 15 studies suggests that it is not a significant teratogen (4.1% of offspring w/ major malformations – similar to general population); limited by data available, study design, confounders…


Bar oz b et al transplantation 2001 articles used for meta analysis

Bar Oz, B et al, Transplantation 2001 Articles used for meta-analysis


Bar oz b et al transplantation 2001

Bar Oz, B et al, Transplantation 2001


Transplant medications cyclosporine2

Transplant medications: cyclosporine

  • Conflicting data re. passage across placenta (rodents show little or no transfer)

  • Excreted in breast milk with even therapeutic levels found in infants

  • Not recommended for lactating mothers


Transplant medications tacrolimus

Transplant medications: tacrolimus

  • Again, limited data

  • 84 women (100 pregnancies – 27% of them in renal transplant recipients)

  • Live birth in 68

  • 60% of deliveries premature

  • 4 babies w/ malformations (no pattern)

  • Dose remained reasonably stable

  • Levels in breast milk similar to that in maternal serum; not recommended during lactation


Kainz a et al transplantation 2000

Kainz, A et al, Transplantation 2000


Kainz a et al transplantation 20001

Kainz, A et al, Transplantation 2000


Transplant medications sirolimus

Transplant medications:sirolimus

  • Should be discontinued >/= 12 weeks before conception

  • Recommend switch to cyclosporine if planning to conceive

  • Can switch back following delivery

  • Case series in 2006 – 7 pregnancies w/ exposure: 4 live births (1 w/ structural malformations), 3 spontaneous abortions


Sifontis nm et al transplantation 2006

Sifontis, NM et al, Transplantation 2006


Transplant medications mycophenolate mofetil

Transplant medications:mycophenolate mofetil

  • Adverse effects seen in lab animals at lower doses than those used in humans

  • Increases 1st trimester pregnancy loss & congenital malformations (cleft lip/palate, anomalies of distal limbs, heart, esophagus, kidneys)


Transplant medications mycophenolate mofetil1

Transplant medications: mycophenolate mofetil

  • Same case series from 2006: 18 renal transplant recipients (26 pregnancies) exposed to MMF

  • 11 spontaneous abortions

  • 15 live births

  • 4/15 live births had structural malformations: hypoplastic nails, shortened 5th finger, microtia w/ & w/o cleft lip & palate, neonatal death w/ multiple malformations


Sifontis nm et al 2006

Sifontis, NM et al 2006


Sifontis nm et al transplantation 20061

Sifontis, NM et al, Transplantation 2006


Transplant medications mycophenolate mofetil2

Transplant medications: mycophenolate mofetil

  • 2 forms of contraception should be used a few weeks before & after therapy, as well as during therapy

  • If planning pregnancy, should switch to azathioprine

  • Should be off of MMF >/= 6 weeks before conception

  • Excreted into breast milk – lactating mothers should avoid


Transplant medications azathioprine

Transplant medications: azathioprine

  • AZA is metabolized to thiouric acid (inactive) by the fetus (a large percent of AZA given to mothers appears as inactive metabolites in fetal blood)

  • Suggests that fetus lacks inosinate pyrophosphorylase which converts AZA to 6-MP

  • 146 renal transplant recipients: 90% given AZA/pred, 2% given AZA, 8% given pred

  • AZA groups showed more problems w/ low birthweight, prematurity, jaundice, respiratory distress syndrome, & aspiration


Transplant medications azathioprine1

Transplant medications: azathioprine

  • Lactation: 31 breast milk samples – 29 had no 6-MP & 2 had minimal

  • 6-MP & 6-thioguanine were not detectable in neonatal blood

  • Preferable to MMF


Mckay db et al transplantation 20061

McKay, DB et al, Transplantation 2006


Recommendations our patient

Recommendations… & our patient


Ast consensus conference on reproductive issues transplantation 2005

AST Consensus Conference on Reproductive Issues & Transplantation 2005


Ast consensus conference on reproductive issues transplantation 20051

AST Consensus Conference on Reproductive Issues & Transplantation 2005


Mckay db et al cjasn 2008

McKay, DB et al, CJASN 2008


Recommendations key points

Recommendations: key points

  • Preferable to wait >/= 1 year following LDRT & >/= 2 years following CRT to avoid rejection-related complications (drug doses are lower & doses are stable)

  • Graft should preferably be functioning well (stable Cr < 1.5 mg/dl, proteinuria < 500mg/d)

  • Frequent monitoring


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Aggressive treatment of hypertension (goal is normalization of bp)

  • Close monitoring for preeclampsia

  • Evidence suggests that pregnancy is not an immunosuppressed state & transplant medications should not be reduced based on that notion


Recommendations1

Recommendations

  • In case cesarian section is necessary, obstetrician should know graft and ureter location

  • Careful wound closure & prophylactic antibiotics to avoid infection

  • Contraception: theoretical problems with hormonal methods, IUDs less effective & increased risk of infection, barrier methods traditionally preferred


Graft dysfunction in pregnancy

Graft dysfunction in pregnancy

  • Rejection is difficult to diagnose since Cr falls somewhat during pregnancy

  • Methylprednisolone is the recommended treatment of rejection

  • IVIg has been used a fair amount without problems

  • Need to include causes specific to transplant as well as causes specific to pregnancy

  • Ureteral obstruction from a gravid uterus is not common, but has been reported

  • TTP-HUS from AHR or from cyclosporine/tacro occur peri-transplant, so a TTP-HUS picture in a pregnant patient is likely pregnancy-related


Ok to biopsy

OK to biopsy??

  • Data for native kidneys

  • Can be done safely in women with well-controlled blood pressure

  • Biopsy after 32 weeks is not recommended (? if applies to transplant patients?)


Issues for donor male recipient

Issues for donor & male recipient

  • Little data re. hyperfiltration in donor who becomes pregnant; fertility & complications do not seem to be affected

  • Sexual function & sperm motility (but not sperm counts or morphology) improve after transplantation

  • Several reports of male infertility associated w/ sirolimus (CNIs & AZA seem ok)


References

References

  • Bar Oz, B et al. Pregnancy outcome after cyclosporine therapy during pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Transplantation 2001; 71:1051.

  • Kainz, A et al. Review of the course and outcome of 100 pregnancies in 84 women treated with tacrolimus. Transplantation 2000; 70:1718.

  • McKay, DB et al. Pregnancy after kidney transplantation. CJASN 2008; 3:S117.

  • McKay, DB et al. Pregnancy in recipients of solid organs – effects on mother and child. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1281.

  • McKay, DB et al. Reproduction and transplantation: report on the AST Consensus Conference on Reproductive Issues and Transplantation. Am J Transplant 2005; 5:1592.

  • Rahamimov, R et al. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients: long-term effect on patient and graft survival. A single-center experience. Transplantation 2006; 81:660.

  • Salmela, KT et al. Impaired renal function after pregnancy in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1993; 56:1372.

  • Sifontis, NM et al. Pregnancy outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients with exposure to mycophenolate mofetil or sirolimus. Transplantation 2006; 82:1698.

  • Sturgiss, SN et al. Effect of pregnancy on long-term function in renal allografts: an update. Am J Kidney Dis 1995; 26:54.

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