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Starter. Copy and complete the following: 1. Electricity is a _____ of ________. 2. Metals _______ electrons to from _______ ions. 3. Non-metals _____ electrons to form ________ ions. 4. Metal are conductors because they have ______ electrons on their surface which can _______.

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Starter

Copy and complete the following:

1. Electricity is a _____ of ________.

2. Metals _______ electrons to from _______ ions.

3. Non-metals _____ electrons to form ________ ions.

4. Metal are conductors because they have ______ electrons on their surface which can _______.


Decide whether the following substances are conductors or insulators:

Solid magnesium oxide

Bromine liquid

Molten copper (II) oxide

Nitrogen gas

Mercury

Molten phosphorous

Frozen pentane

Carbon tetrachloride liquid

Potassium bromide solution

Nitrogen hydride gas

Solid oxygen

Sodium bromide solution.

1. Insulator

2. Insulator

3. Conductor

4. Insulator

5. Conductor

6. Insulator

7. Insulator

8. Insulator

9. Conductor

10. Insulator

11. Insulator

12. Conductor


Melting Points


Aim:

  • To investigate the relationship between type of bonding and melting point.


Method:

Compounds to be tested


Results:


Conclusion:

  • In general,

    • Ionic compounds  high melting points

    • Covalent compounds  low melting points


Melting and Boiling Points of Substances

Ionic solids

  • 3D rigid lattice where ions are held together by very strong bonds of attraction so lots of energy is needed to overcome this attraction.

  • Ionic solids tend to have high melting and boiling points.

  • For example, sodium chloride (NaCl)


Covalent Molecules

  • Have weak bond of attraction between molecules.

  • So very little energy is needed to overcome this attraction.

  • Therefore covalent molecules have relatively low melting and boiling points.

  • For example, carbon dioxide (CO2)


Covalent Networks

  • Contain special covalent bonds which are very strong.

  • Therefore a lot of energy is needed to overcome this.

  • Very high melting and boiling points.

  • For example, silicon dioxide (SO2)


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