Research Activities on Biodiesel at INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM DEHRADUN - INDIA. Activities on Biodiesel Technology Development. Research activities on process development for Biodiesel (methyl esters) carried out under a sponsored project by Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi
Activities on Biodiesel Technology Development
USA : Soya Oil is predominant
Europe : Canola, rapeseed oil largely used
Other feedstock: Tallow, lard, yellow grease, palm oil Include etc.
Feedstocks in Indian Context
Non Edible Vegetable Oils
Available in India
Possible raw materials for biodiesel
NahorMesua ferra linn
Rubber SeedHevea Brasilensis
Currently used technologies for producing biodiesel can be classified into three categories:
Other process under development include – biocatalyzed transesterification, pyrolysis of vegetable oil/ seeds and transesterification in supercritical methanol.
The goal of all technologies is to produce fuel grade esters meeting standard specifications (e.g. ASTM/ European/BIS).
The basic process involves transesterification of vegetable oil/fats in presence of a catalyst in batch or continuous mode. Continuous process may not be suitable, if the variation in quality of feedstocks are wide.
There are numerous variations of basic technology:
Both base and acid catalyzed processes are associated with several inherent problems:
The selection of appropriate technology for production of biodiesel requires careful selection of processing steps, catalyst and downstream process integration. The quality of feed vegetable oil particularly FFA content plays and important role in identifying the suitable technology.
The important factors to be considered include:
India Institute of Petroleum has developed three processes for biodiesel from non-edible oils and under exploited oils including Jatropha curcas, Pongamia, Salvadora, Madhuca Indica and Mixed Oils.
Base catalysed process:
Methanol + catalyst
IIP Processes for Biodiesel – Process – I
Solid catalyst process:
Fresh Vegetable Oil
IIP Processes for Biodiesel : Process – II
…IIP Process – II
…IIP Process – II
Base catalyst-solvent process:
Removal of FFA
MeOH + Catalyst
IIP Processes for Biodiesel – Process – III
Any of these processes can be selected to produce biodiesel depending upon the characteristics of feed oil stock. Biodiesel produced meets standard specifications (ASTM / European / BIS proposed) by all three processes.
Effect of by-products on economics
The lubricity behavior of base fuel, Light cycle oil LCO/Diesel and biodiesel blends of Jatropha curcas and Pogamia glabra in LCO were assessed by HFRR test (ISO 12156 method).
HFRR Lubricity Evaluation for Biodiesel in LCO