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Reconstruction. Reconstruction was the period between 1865-1877 that saw the rebuilding of the South after the Civil War. It also refers to the rebuilding of the federal union – politically, economically and socially. Reconstruction had to choose answers to the following questions:

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reconstruction
Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction was the period between 1865-1877 that saw the rebuilding of the South after the Civil War.
  • It also refers to the rebuilding of the federal union – politically, economically and socially.
  • Reconstruction had to choose answers to the following questions:
    • 1. How was the defeated South to be treated?
    • 2. What was to be the future of the newly freed slaves?
    • 3. Were key decisions to be made by state governments or by Washington?
    • 4. Was congress or the president to establish policies?
reconstructions
Reconstructions
  • Radical Republicans
    • Wanted full citizenship for all former slaves
    • Extend voting rights to all former slaves
  • Lincoln’s Plan
    • 10% of the confederate states voters had to take an oath of loyalty to the Union
    • Those voters had to form a new state government and write a constitution that abolished slavery
    • He hoped being lenient would prompt southerners to accept emancipation
civil war amendments
Civil War Amendments
  • 13th Amendment: abolished slavery
  • 14th Amendment: everyone born in the US (except Native Americans) was a citizen; no state could interfere with rights granted to citizens by the Constitution
  • 15th Amendment: The right to vote could not be denied based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
freedman s bureau
Freedman’s Bureau
  • Freedman’s Bureau: Agency intended to help newly emancipated African Americans
  • Helped African Americans and poor whites acquire:
    • food
    • shelter
    • employment
    • medical care
    • legal aid
    • schooling
freedman s bureau1
Freedman’s Bureau
  • Established the first colleges for African Americans
    • Howard University
    • Hampton Institute
    • Fisk University

The Freedman’s Bureau lasted until 1872.

plessy v ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 1892 Homer Plessy tested the Separate Car Act’s constitutionality
  • Homer Plessy was 1/8 black
  • Claimed the Separate Car Act violated the 13th and 14th Amendments
  • Louisiana judge said the Act was unconstitutional for trains traveling between states
  • Judge said it was ok for trains within the state
  • 1896 Supreme Court stated that separate but equal treatment was OK.
slide7

Population of African Americans in cities doubled between 1865 and 1870

  • Sharecropping: African Americans and poor whites worked a small plot of land owned by white landlords.
  • Landlords gave supplies and sharecroppers gave part of their crop to pay for use of land.
  • African American churches were first social institutions controlled by African Americans
white resistance
White Resistance
  • Ku Klux Klan: beat, lynched, intimidated, murdered, burned African American homes and churches
  • States used a poll tax (people had to pay before they voted)
  • Segregation Laws (Jim Crow Laws): separation of the races
    • Schools
    • Restaurants
    • Trains
westward expansion
Westward Expansion
  • Why?
    • To settle land
    • To make money
    • Find gold
  • Transcontinental Railroad: connected cities in the east, mid-west and west
  • Continued to push Native Americans aside
reservations
Reservations
  • US government set aside tracts of land for Native Americans
  • Promised Native Americans that they would have that land forever
  • Settlers continued to move onto Native American lands
  • Some Native Americans resisted
buffalo soldiers
Buffalo Soldiers
  • By 1881 most Native Americans lived on Reservations
  • African American Army units guarded the reservations
  • Government used these units to keep peace on the frontier
  • African Americans saw the units as a way to build careers denied to them elsewhere
wounded knee
Wounded Knee
  • A religious movement formed around the Ghost Dance which Native Americans thought would restore their lands and traditions
  • US officials thought it might be a war dance
  • They attempted to arrest Sitting Bull, in the confusion Sitting Bull and others were killed
  • The Sioux were sent to a camp near Wounded Knee Creek
  • A shot rang out and fight ensued
  • Nearly all of the 350 Sioux were killed including women and children
effects on native americans
Effects on Native Americans
  • Reformers protested the policies towards Native Americans
  • Some created programs that would force Native Americans to assimilate
  • Between 1887 and 1934 Native Americans went from 138 million acres of land to 55 million acres
  • In 1900 there were 200,000 Native Americans living in the US, mostly on reservations
  • Congress tried to end reservations through the Dawes Act in 1887
the dawes act 1887
The Dawes Act 1887
  • Divided plots of land for individual families
  • Native Americans had little experience with agriculture
  • Government gave them seeds but not instructions on planting
  • Many Native Americans had no interest in farming and sold their land to whites for low prices
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