Reconstruction
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Reconstruction. Reconstruction was the period between 1865-1877 that saw the rebuilding of the South after the Civil War. It also refers to the rebuilding of the federal union – politically, economically and socially. Reconstruction had to choose answers to the following questions:

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Reconstruction

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Reconstruction

Reconstruction

  • Reconstruction was the period between 1865-1877 that saw the rebuilding of the South after the Civil War.

  • It also refers to the rebuilding of the federal union – politically, economically and socially.

  • Reconstruction had to choose answers to the following questions:

    • 1. How was the defeated South to be treated?

    • 2. What was to be the future of the newly freed slaves?

    • 3. Were key decisions to be made by state governments or by Washington?

    • 4. Was congress or the president to establish policies?


Reconstructions

Reconstructions

  • Radical Republicans

    • Wanted full citizenship for all former slaves

    • Extend voting rights to all former slaves

  • Lincoln’s Plan

    • 10% of the confederate states voters had to take an oath of loyalty to the Union

    • Those voters had to form a new state government and write a constitution that abolished slavery

    • He hoped being lenient would prompt southerners to accept emancipation


Civil war amendments

Civil War Amendments

  • 13th Amendment: abolished slavery

  • 14th Amendment: everyone born in the US (except Native Americans) was a citizen; no state could interfere with rights granted to citizens by the Constitution

  • 15th Amendment: The right to vote could not be denied based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”


Freedman s bureau

Freedman’s Bureau

  • Freedman’s Bureau: Agency intended to help newly emancipated African Americans

  • Helped African Americans and poor whites acquire:

    • food

    • shelter

    • employment

    • medical care

    • legal aid

    • schooling


Freedman s bureau1

Freedman’s Bureau

  • Established the first colleges for African Americans

    • Howard University

    • Hampton Institute

    • Fisk University

      The Freedman’s Bureau lasted until 1872.


Plessy v ferguson

Plessy v. Ferguson

  • 1892 Homer Plessy tested the Separate Car Act’s constitutionality

  • Homer Plessy was 1/8 black

  • Claimed the Separate Car Act violated the 13th and 14th Amendments

  • Louisiana judge said the Act was unconstitutional for trains traveling between states

  • Judge said it was ok for trains within the state

  • 1896 Supreme Court stated that separate but equal treatment was OK.


Reconstruction

  • Population of African Americans in cities doubled between 1865 and 1870

  • Sharecropping: African Americans and poor whites worked a small plot of land owned by white landlords.

  • Landlords gave supplies and sharecroppers gave part of their crop to pay for use of land.

  • African American churches were first social institutions controlled by African Americans


White resistance

White Resistance

  • Ku Klux Klan: beat, lynched, intimidated, murdered, burned African American homes and churches

  • States used a poll tax (people had to pay before they voted)

  • Segregation Laws (Jim Crow Laws): separation of the races

    • Schools

    • Restaurants

    • Trains


Westward expansion

Westward Expansion

  • Why?

    • To settle land

    • To make money

    • Find gold

  • Transcontinental Railroad: connected cities in the east, mid-west and west

  • Continued to push Native Americans aside


Reservations

Reservations

  • US government set aside tracts of land for Native Americans

  • Promised Native Americans that they would have that land forever

  • Settlers continued to move onto Native American lands

  • Some Native Americans resisted


Buffalo soldiers

Buffalo Soldiers

  • By 1881 most Native Americans lived on Reservations

  • African American Army units guarded the reservations

  • Government used these units to keep peace on the frontier

  • African Americans saw the units as a way to build careers denied to them elsewhere


Wounded knee

Wounded Knee

  • A religious movement formed around the Ghost Dance which Native Americans thought would restore their lands and traditions

  • US officials thought it might be a war dance

  • They attempted to arrest Sitting Bull, in the confusion Sitting Bull and others were killed

  • The Sioux were sent to a camp near Wounded Knee Creek

  • A shot rang out and fight ensued

  • Nearly all of the 350 Sioux were killed including women and children


Effects on native americans

Effects on Native Americans

  • Reformers protested the policies towards Native Americans

  • Some created programs that would force Native Americans to assimilate

  • Between 1887 and 1934 Native Americans went from 138 million acres of land to 55 million acres

  • In 1900 there were 200,000 Native Americans living in the US, mostly on reservations

  • Congress tried to end reservations through the Dawes Act in 1887


The dawes act 1887

The Dawes Act 1887

  • Divided plots of land for individual families

  • Native Americans had little experience with agriculture

  • Government gave them seeds but not instructions on planting

  • Many Native Americans had no interest in farming and sold their land to whites for low prices


Reconstruction

  • http://www.nps.gov/history/nagpra/documents/RESERV.PDF


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