Bauxite and aluminum a cradle to grave analysis
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Bauxite and Aluminum: A Cradle to Grave Analysis. By Greg Zelder and Sebastian Africano Race, Poverty, and the Environment Professor Raquel R. Pinderhughes Urban Studies Program San Francisco State University Spring, 2003

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Bauxite and aluminum a cradle to grave analysis

Bauxite and Aluminum: A Cradle to Grave Analysis

By Greg Zelder and Sebastian Africano

Race, Poverty, and the Environment

Professor Raquel R. Pinderhughes

Urban Studies Program

San Francisco State University

Spring, 2003

Public has permission to use the material herein, but only if author, course, university, and professor are cited


Bauxite and aluminum a cradle to grave analysis

This presentation focuses on the extraction and refinement of Bauxite, followed by the production, consumption, and disposal of Aluminum.

It is designed to enhance the readers’ awareness of the realities behind aluminum consumption by examining the effects of its production on the people and environment of the planet. It takes you through the cradle to grave lifecycle of aluminum, paying particular attention to the social, environmental, and public health impacts of the processes associated with producing it.


Contents part i slides 4 47

Contents, Part I, slides 4 - 47

  • Geology

  • History of Bauxite Use

  • Social Impacts of Bauxite Mining

  • Case Studies

    • India

    • Haiti

  • General Impacts of Bauxite Mining

  • Environmental Impacts of Bauxite Mining


Contents part ii slides 48 85

Contents Part II, slides 48 - 85

  • Distribution of Bauxite

  • Aluminum Smelting Inputs & Processes

    • Spent Pot Lining (SPL)

  • Energy and Resource Use in Al Smelting

  • Aluminum Smelter Emissions

    • Exposure to Fluorides

    • Exposure to Aluminum

  • Aluminum in Food and Water

  • Aluminum in Medicine

  • From aluminum Metals to Consumer Products

  • Aluminum and Recycling

  • Conclusion


Geology of bauxite

Geology of Bauxite

http://www.hs.wisd.org/ddaughenbaugh/Pictures/alcoa_aluminum_smelter_and_mine.htm

Bauxite ore is the most abundant element found in the earth's crust, although the word bauxite is used to describe any material that contains more than 32 percent alumina1.

A Bauxite rock with impurities


Geology of bauxite1

Geology of Bauxite

  • Dislodged rock particulates in areas of heavy rainfall percolate down to the water table, where aluminum silicate compounds accumulate and pressure causes them to coalesce.

  • In this form the compounds are what we consider bauxite2.


Geology of bauxite2

Geology of Bauxite

  • There are three main structural types of bauxite:

    • Gibbsite

    • Böhmite

    • Diaspore

  • Each of these three types of bauxite has different characteristics that make them more or less desirable for mining purposes.


  • Geology of bauxite3

    Geology of Bauxite

    • Gibbsite has a maximum alumina content of 65.4%

    • Böhmite and diaspore both have a maximum alumina content of 85%3.

    • Of the bauxites currently being mined, the dominant form is gibbsite, followed by a mixture of gibbsite and böhmite.

    • The main impurities are compounds of iron, silicon and titanium4.


    Geology of bauxite4

    Geology of Bauxite

    • The three structural differences of Bauxite can be further categorized into two groups, the difference being in the water content of each5 :

      • Monohydrates

      • trihydrates

  • Trihydrates are comprised of gibbsite and böhmite and are found in Latin America and Caribbean areas6.

  • Deposits of desirable bauxite occur as flat layers lying near the surface and may cover many miles - the average thickness of these layers is 4-6 meters7.


  • History of bauxite use

    History of Bauxite Use

    • Bauxite was used long before it was ever refined into aluminum.

      • In Guyana it was used to build homes with the so-called "brown-mud" that would later be called bauxite.

      • These deposits were also used to make pots and plates, along with using it as a plaster for homes8 .


    History of bauxite use1

    History of Bauxite Use

    • It was not until 1825 that western cultures devised a way to make aluminum from bauxite. The Danish Chemist, Hans Oerstad was able to isolate a small amount of aluminum from bauxite9 .

    • Over the next few decades new procedures were introduced that lowered the cost of aluminum, however it was still used only for jewelry purposes10 .


    History of bauxite use2

    History of Bauxite Use

    • It was not until 1886 that the Hall-Heroult electrolytic process, which is used to make aluminum from alumina, was discovered.

    • In 1889 Karl Bayer introduced the Bayer process of extracting mass amounts of alumina from bauxite11 .


    History of bauxite use3

    History of Bauxite Use

    • Four to six tons of bauxite are needed to produce two tons of alumina which in turn produces one ton of aluminum12 .

    • In 1998, the total area mined for bauxite was 1591 hectares (3929.77 acres) of which 80% was wildlife habitat, 175 hectares (432.25 acres) was tropical rainforest and 577 hectares (1425.19 acres) possessed important fauna species13.


    Alumina production

    Alumina Production

    According to Persaud, in the Bayer Alumina reduction process:

    • "The bauxite is first ground and mixed with chemicals (sodium hydroxide/caustic soda, lime). Then it is pumped into huge pressure containers and heated, after which more chemicals (lime to regenerate caustic soda) are added, and hydrated alumina crystallizes from the solution after being seeded with other (trihydrate alumina) crystals. These crystals are then washed and heated at very high temperatures to drive off the moisture until a white powder remains. This is the alumina or aluminum oxide14,15”


    Alumina production cont

    Alumina Production, cont….

    • The OSHA filed Material Safety Data Sheet for Caustic Soda lists it as a highly reactive alkaloid dangerous to human health.

    • Effects of exposure to Caustic Soda:

      • ACUTE OVEREXPOSURE: Corrosive to all body tissues with which it comes in contact.

      • CHRONIC OVEREXPOSURE: Chronic local effect may consist of multiple areas of superficial destruction of the skin or of primary irritant dermatitis.

      • Inhalation of dust, spray or mist may result in varying degrees of irritation or damage to the respiratory tract tissues and an increased susceptibility to respiratory illness16.


    Alumina production cont1

    Alumina Production, cont…

    Courtesy of: http://www.hs.wisd.org/ddaughenbaugh/Pictures/alcoa_aluminum_smelter_and_mine.htm


    The world s bauxite sources

    The World's Bauxite Sources

    Courtesy of: http://www.hs.wisd.org/ddaughenbaugh/Pictures/alcoa_aluminum_smelter_and_mine.htm


    Social impacts associated with bauxite mining

    Social Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    …the social impacts of bauxite mining and production are harder to quantify.

    • One must look at the societies that were living in bauxite rich areas before mining started, and also what happened to those societies after the development of a mining operation.

    • In many cases, the societies that were living on the land that was found to be rich in bauxite were indigenous cultures that had lived on the land for centuries prior to the discovery.


    Social impacts associated with bauxite mining1

    Social Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • Upon the discovery of bauxite, however, the people and cultures that relied on the land were displaced at the hands of the government.

    • Young people were forced to go to urban areas to make a living for the families, the land previously depended upon for agriculture was ravaged, and basically the fabric of the cultures was torn apart.


    Social impacts associated with bauxite mining2

    Social Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • How and why does this happen?

    • Is it necessary?

    • What is the role of the governments in these situations?

      To answer these questions one must look at specific cases.


    Case study india

    Case Study: India

    • In India the "problem" of indigenous cultures occupying bauxite-rich land has become a flash point of violence among the population and government.

    • In 1998 the Norwegian company Norsk-Hydro found bauxite in Orissa, a state in India. The problem for the company was that 2100 families in 24 villages stood in the way17.

    • Out of Orissa's 32 million people, seven million are aboriginal, and are concentrated in the mineral-rich Raigada, Koraput and Kalahandi districts where they make up 80 percent of the population18.


    Case study india1

    Case Study: India

    • In Orissa alone there are nearly 150 million acres of once arable or homestead land that is currently being mined and there are an estimated 50,000 environmental refugees19.

    • Tribal or aboriginal people in India only make up 8 percent of the population but account for more than 40 percent of it's displaced people20.


    Case study india2

    Case Study: India

    • In India the tribes, not the central government, control tribal land. This means that the tribes must decide whether the mining companies can be allowed to mine.

    • A local environmental group in the area organized a poll that showed that 96 percent of the people in the district were against the bauxite project21 .


    Case study india3

    Case Study: India

    • The police in the area have taken up arms against the local people, apparently working for the company's interests, and have arrested nearly every land owner at least once and pressured them to sign away their lands22 .


    Case study india4

    Case Study: India

    • In December of 2000 there were riots against the company and their plans to mine the region, in which two men were killed by police23 .

    • Human rights organizations believe that Norsk-Hydro was complicit in the killings because as the police have pressured the local people to sign away their lands, they have essentially become an unofficial subsidiary of the corporation.

    • If the corporation is found to be complicit it would be in violation of principles one and two of the United Nations Global Compact24 .


    Case study india5

    Case Study: India

    • Principle one of the Compact states that corporations agree “to support and respect the protection of international human rights within their sphere of influence”

    • Principle two requires corporations “to make sure their own corporations are not complicit in human rights abuses.” 25


    Case study india6

    Case Study: India

    • These allegations point to the larger problem of how large transnational corporations interact with local peoples in their quest for natural resources and raw material.

    • Local communities are not seen as being inherently needed by the country – rather, all that is seen is the negligence of the local people in not taking advantage of the resources that they own.


    Case study india7

    Case Study: India

    • Because of this perceived negligence, foreign investors see the situation as one in which it is their duty to the global economy (not to mention their pocket books) that they exploit these areas.

    • In many cases the plight of the indigenous cultures are not taken into account by either the company or the government, leaving one to consider the interactions between the respective governments and corporations.


    Case study haiti

    Case Study: Haiti

    • Following the discovery of Bauxite in Jamaica in 1943, companies were looking into the possibility of bauxite being present in other Latin America islands.

    • In the summer of that year Reynolds Metals Company found bauxite in Haiti and proceeded to sign a concession contract with the Haitian government26 .


    Case study haiti1

    Case Study: Haiti

    • Like most contracts between transnational corporations and governments of less developed countries, the contract was very one-sided in favor of the corporation.

    • The contract granted Reynolds “exclusive rights of privilege of making researches and of exploiting bauxite minerals and all other minerals containing or which may contain aluminum,” with practically the entire area of Haiti being specified27 .


    Case study haiti2

    Case Study: Haiti

    • The agreement was to extend to 60 years after the signing, forcing the government to accept terms at an early stage of the bargaining process which may not have been suitable in the future.

    • The main factor behind the acceptance of these terms was the fact that the United States government gave support to Reynolds negotiations for two main reasons:

      • demand for aluminum had grown due to World War II and,

      • at the time, the U.S. government was trying to break the monopoly of Alcoa in the aluminum industry28 .


    Case study haiti3

    Case Study: Haiti

    • Along with the “nudging” of the U.S. government, there were other reasons that the Haitian government believed that the contract would be good for the country:

      • Included in the contract was the promise of employment (even though the company only had to hire unskilled workers and no training for managerial or administrative positions was offered)29.

      • The country was to also receive a royalty payment tied to the production of bauxite - at the time the royalty amounted to 30.5 cents per 1000 kilos30.

      • In 1963 the contract was renegotiated and the royalty was actually lowered to 20 cents per ton31!


    Case study haiti4

    Case Study: Haiti

    The government also believed that the company would add to the country’s infrastructure.

    • All the country received in terms of infrastructure was an 8-mile road connecting the mine to the port, which was only used to ship the refined alumina to the United States - the road had little effect on the economy as a whole32 .

    • The company also built a power plant, water supply infrastructure, and a hospital to be used by the company and it’s employees only33 .


    Case study haiti5

    Case Study: Haiti

    • Along with these “oversights” by the government, the biggest, in relation to the population, was that the government agreed to help prevent strikes, creating an unsettling alliance to stop even the most basic forms of labor empowerment.

    • It is necessary to mention that the number of people employed by Reynolds was small in relation to the rest of the workforce (approximately 0.5%) of 45,000 workers34.


    Case study haiti6

    Case Study: Haiti

    • This kind of agreement reinforces the notion of complicity when it comes to the dealings of governments, especially those in developing nations who are dependant on industrialization, and transnational corporations who have no accountability to the citizens of the countries in which they extract their resources.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • In the early days of bauxite mining, hydraulic strip mining was used to retrieve the bauxite35

    • Hydraulic strip mining is the process of using high-powered streams of water to dislodge rocks and minerals that are then collected downstream.

    • This process is very damaging to the environment because of the large amount of silt that is created and that flows into nearby waterways.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining1

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • With time it was shown that a much more economically viable way of mining bauxite was to simply create an open pit where the bauxite, along with the surrounding materials could be hauled away36.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining2

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    Courtesy of: http://www.hs.wisd.org/ddaughenbaugh/Pictures/alcoa_aluminum_smelter_and_mine.htm

    Digging Up the Bauxite (Along with everything else)


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining3

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    Courtesy of: http://www.hs.wisd.org/ddaughenbaugh/Pictures/alcoa_aluminum_smelter_and_mine.htm

    The Bucket from the previous slide


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining4

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • Bauxite is now generally extracted with this method by removing the topsoil and then hauling away the 4-6 meters of bauxite underneath.

    • 80% of the world's bauxite is mined from blanket deposits where open-pit mining is used37.

    • The other 20% comes from Southern Europe and Hungary where underground excavation is utilized38.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining5

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • According to the industry, after the mining is completed the habitat is returned to its normal state…39.

    • This may be the case, but the original disruption is so great that one may wonder if it is possible to return a mined area to its “original” state.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining6

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • Because of the high alumina content of bauxite there is no need to use highly polluting procedures in the separation such as those in other industries (e.g. copper or iron)40.

    • The main pollutants that are released are caustic acids which, through spills or dumping, make their way to creeks and rivers and cause "fish-kill“, where "dead fish can be seen floating on the water,“41.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining7

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • The most noticeable impacts of mining and production is red-dust (sometimes referred to as red-mud).

    • Red-dust is mainly a by-product of the Bayer process, composed of the impurities in the bauxite that are not dissolved in the refining process.

    • The amount that is generated per ton of alumina produced varies between 0.3 tons to 2.5 tons, depending on the grade of bauxite used42

    • Red-dust is non-toxic, although it is highly alkaline, but the lakes that it is stored in have been noted to produce a "harsh smell that is offensive and suffocating43“

    • The dust is so fine that it "pollutes the air and finally settles in the most secret parts of homes,44"


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining8

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • Recently an Australian researcher found a way to utilize red-dust in an ecologically sound manner.

    • Instead of just dumping the dust into specially formed lakes, he mixes it with seawater to make an alkaline sludge.

    • This sludge can then be used to "mop up" the heavy metals left in the tailings of other mining operations45.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining9

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • Another type of pollution that is produced by bauxite mining is noise pollution from all of the machinery that is needed and from the production facilities that run 24 hours a day46.

    • Most workers from the mines and production facilities live near their worksites with their families - the operations run incessantly, creating a near-urban racket in otherwise rural areas.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining10

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • Environmental damage also comes in the form of increased development.

    • In Haiti the Reynolds corporation built an 8-mile road from the production facility to the port, a power plant, water supply buildings and a hospital, not to mention housing for all of the workers, all in a very remote part of the tiny island-nation that hadn't been developed before47 .

    • The development disrupted major portions of the tropical forest surrounding the bauxite mine48.


    Impacts associated with bauxite mining11

    Impacts associated with Bauxite Mining

    • Generally speaking, alumina (Al2O3 - aluminum oxide) is the base input material used to make aluminum for all applications.

    • After all of the production of alumina is complete, it is shipped to industrialized nations where it is made into aluminum.

    • The shipping involves immense fossil fuel consumption and emissions and, less obviously, involves the transport of ballast water contaminated with foreign bacteria and sea life to the industrialized port destination, causing irreparable ecological harm.


    Distribution of bauxite

    Distribution of Bauxite

    • After its production from raw bauxite, the powdered alumina is transported to a primary aluminum smelter.

    • Alumina produced in East Asia could be sent to a smelter in the Pacific Northwest – an ocean journey of 5000 miles. Alumina produced in Jamaica could be shipped to a smelter in Tennessee – a journey of only 1400 miles by comparison.

    • Different aluminum products call for varying compositional percentages of specific alloys, which could determine which plant receives what quantities of alumina, and from where.


    Bauxite and aluminum a cradle to grave analysis

    Below is a map of Alcoa’s Worldwide Operating Locationswww.alcoa.com/globa/en/about_alcoa/map/globalmap.aspl


    Aluminum smelting inputs and processes

    Aluminum Smelting Inputs and Processes

    • Alumina (AL2O3 – Aluminum Oxide) is reduced to pure aluminum metal through the Hall-Heroult electrolytic process – named after its inventors.

    • The alumina is dissolved by passing an electric current between two nodes – a carbon anode (+) made of petroleum coke and pitch, and a cathode (-), the thick carbon lining of the electrolytic cell, or “pot”49.

    • The pot contains both the aluminum oxide powder and a molten cryolite-based electrolyte, sodium aluminum fluoride, which is used as the conductor of electricity50.

    • The electric current is passed between the two nodes, breaking the aluminum and oxygen bond of alumina, and leaving pure aluminum metal and oxygen – the latter which combines with the carbon anode to form CO2, which is released into the atmosphere51.


    Aluminum smelting inputs and processes1

    Aluminum Smelting Inputs and Processes

    • Aluminum is formed at 900°C - a temperature that requires 150,000 amperes of electricity to be reached52.

    • Once the aluminum in the pot is molten, it is siphoned off into holding furnaces, either to be mixed to an alloy specification, or cleaned and cast into ingots – the primary unit of aluminum fabrication53.

    • Pots are set up in lines of 150-300 pots, each pot producing between 360-2350 kg of Al per day54.

    Aluminum Ingots – www.ingot.alcan.com


    Spent pot lining spl

    Spent Pot Lining (SPL)

    • The carbon cathode lining in the pots experience constant wear and are periodically discarded.

    • Spent pot lining (SPL) is treated as hazardous waste because it contains traces of absorbed fluoride as well as cyanide, two substances known as toxic to humans55.

    • Approximately 20 tons of SPL are produced for every 1000 tons of aluminum produced – its disposal is “the largest environmental problem of the aluminum industry56.

    • Currently SPL is disposed of in landfills, but worldwide concern about the safety of this practice, due to leaching potential, has caused it to be stockpiled around the world for later use or disposal57

    • Research is currently being conducted, having reached costs of $26 million, to determine if the SPL could be re-used as the molten electrolytic conductor in the smelting process58.


    Energy and resource use in aluminum smelting

    Energy and Resource Use in Aluminum Smelting

    • Aluminum smelters are located in areas where electricity can be produced in abundance at a reasonable price

    • Typically this means locating the smelter near a hydroelectric dam, coal source, nuclear energy plant, or building an energy source in conjunction with and specifically for the production facility

    • Over 55% of the energy used in aluminum production worldwide comes from hydro-electric sources59.

    Chief Joseph Dam, Columbia River, Washington – Second Largest Hydroelectric Dam in the United States

    http://www.nws.usace.army.mil/opdiv/cj/Chiefjo.htm


    Energy and aluminum cont

    Energy and Aluminum, cont…

    • To produce one kilogram of aluminum from alumina requires approximately 15.7 Kilowatt Hours of electricity -- this is roughly the same amount used to power an average California home per day60,61.

    • In the U.S. aluminum industry’s prime, electricity consumption rates for aluminum producers matched that of New York City -- it is currently producing 1,000,000 metric tons less per year than it did 5 years ago, due to increased energy costs, market fluctuations, and subsequent plant closings in the Pacific Northwest62.

    • The U.S. produced about 11.4 billion kilograms of aluminum in 2001, equating to the use of roughly 179 billion Kilowatt hours of electricity63.


    Energy and aluminum cont1

    Energy and Aluminum, cont…

    • Hydroelectric dams, while being one of the cleaner forms of electricity production, also flood natural habitats upon construction, erode riverbeds, alter natural flooding and flow patterns of rivers, inhibit natural fish runs, and displace communities around the world

    • In Brazil, where 93% of energy comes from hydroelectricity, a total land area larger than the country of Belgium has been flooded by dam building, displacing countless communities of indigenous peoples64.

    • In pristine southern Chile, roughly 25,000 acres of native habitat and 40 families are threatened by the intended construction of three hydroelectric dams designed to power the proposed Noranda Alumysa Aluminum Smelter65.


    Energy and aluminum cont2

    Energy and Aluminum, cont…

    • Combustion of coal is the second major energy source for aluminum production.

    • The Alcoa Aluminum Smelter in Rockdale, TX requires 36 million pounds of coal to fuel its operations EACH DAY66.

    • It gets its coal from the Sandow Lignite Coal Mine in Central Texas, removing 250 vertical feet of soil in 100 cubic yard scoops at a time to reach the coal – a common dump truck we would recognize at a construction site carries between 5-7 cubic yards67.


    Bauxite and aluminum a cradle to grave analysis

    • In one year, a typical 500 Megawatt coal fired power plant:

      • Burns 1.4 million tons of coal

      • Uses 2.2 billion gallons of water

      • Generates 10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide and 10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide

      • Produces

        • 3.7 million tons of carbon dioxide

        • 500 tons of small particulate matter

        • 220 tons of hydrocarbons

        • 720 tons of carbon monoxide

        • 125,000 tons of ash

        • 193,000 tons of sludge

        • 170 pounds of mercury

        • 225 pounds of arsenic

        • 114 pounds of lead and

        • 4 pounds of cadmium68


    Aluminum smelter emissions health effects on human animal and plant communities

    Aluminum Smelter Emissions – Health Effects on Human, Animal, and Plant Communities

    The electrolytic reduction cells (pot line) are the major source of the air emissions in an aluminum smelter, including gaseous and particulate fluorides, sulfur and carbon dioxides, and various dusts, with the gaseous and particulate fluorides being of prime concern69.


    Exposure to fluorides

    Exposure to Fluorides

    • Around the globe, a number of cases have been documented illustrating the negative effects of fluoride emissions from aluminum production.

    • The International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS), a program of the World Health Organization, has listed the effects of fluorides on biotic communities as completely destructive, absorbed through the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract of humans and/or animals and deposited “almost exclusively” in the bones and teeth70.


    Exposure to fluorides cont

    Exposure to Fluorides, cont…

    • Unicef describes the symptoms of skeletal fluorosis as follows:

      • “Chronic intake of excessive fluoride can lead to the severe and permanent bone and joint deformations of skeletal fluorosis. Early symptoms include sporadic pain and stiffness of joints, headache, stomach ache, and muscle weakness… The next stage is osteosclerosis (hardening and calcifying of the bones) and finally the spine, major joints, muscles, and nervous system are damaged71”.


    Exposure to fluorides cont1

    Exposure to Fluorides, cont…

    • In India, China, and parts of Northern, Eastern, Central, and South Africa, the occurrence of endemic skeletal fluorosis has been classified as “high”, by the WHO’s IPCS program, due to elevated levels of fluoride in drinking water, preparation of food in fluoridated water, and burning fluoride rich coal72.

    • A victim of skeletal fluorosis http://nalgonda.org/images/flourine/pic19.jpg


    Exposure to fluorides cont2

    Exposure to Fluorides, cont…

    • A study done in the Indian State of Orissa cites that “aluminum smelting, which consumes 30% of the power produced in the region, has contaminated the groundwater around aluminum smelters...the state pollution control board tested water wells and ponds (local to the plant) and found fluoride well in excess of the regulatory limit73”.

    • In this particular vicinity of Orissa, an estimated 67% of men and 64% of women suffer from fluorosis, and cattle populations have dropped “precipitously” as a result of over-fluoridation74.


    Exposure to fluorides cont3

    Exposure to Fluorides, cont…

    • A villager living in view of a Chalco (Aluminum Corporation of China) aluminum smelter in Tibet, was quoted in an article on the Fluoride Action Network website as saying:

      “The smoke settles on the hillsides. If we let our sheep or donkeys out to graze, their teeth turn yellow and brittle, then fall out. Our animals starve, and we lose our livelihood75”.


    Exposure to fluorides cont4

    Exposure to Fluorides, cont…

    • The IPCS report also states that “anthropogenic sources of fluoride have been shown to be correlated with damage to local terrestrial plant communities… ...fluoride induced effects, such as lameness and tooth damage, have also been reported in wild ungulates, such as deer, and in small mammals close to anthropogenic sources of fluoride76”.


    Exposure to fluorides cont5

    Exposure to Fluorides, cont…

    • Workers in the aluminum production industry are also at great risk of being exposed to fluorides.

    • Risk of exposure, to a detrimental end, usually depends on the degrees of precaution exercised by both the workers and the plant. The use of protective equipment and good ventilation during work lessen the occupational risk.


    Exposure to aluminum

    Exposure to Aluminum

    • The IPCS report on Aluminum maintains that aluminum concentrations in the air that would affect the general public are low and negligible77.

    • Most of the aluminum in the air enters the atmosphere as soil derived dust, as aluminum represents 8% of the earth’s crust by composition78.

    • While exposure to aluminum dust particles for process and production workers are estimated at <1mg/8hr shift, and for welders 40mg/8hr shift, exposure for the general population is estimated at 40 micrograms daily (1mg = 1000 micrograms)79.


    Exposure to aluminum cont

    Exposure to Aluminum, cont…

    • Acute exposures to aluminum dust in laboratory animals were shown to produce developmental problems, mutagenic effects, and neurotoxic effects including:

      • skeletal malformations,

      • interference with DNA replication, and

      • learning performance impairment80

  • These effects, however, were a result of acute exposures, which produce more marked effects than gradual exposure over time.

  • Effects of chronic exposure upon process and production workers can include shortness of breath, weakness, and cough, potentially increasing the risk of emphysema and lung fibrosis81.


  • Exposure to aluminum cont1

    Exposure to Aluminum, cont…

    • Excessive exposure to aluminum has also been positively correlated to Alzheimer’s Disease in various studies, but a definitive link and subsequent consensus still eludes the medical community.

    • Insoluble aluminosilicate (the naturally occuring element combination of aluminum and silicon) can be made into a toxic, soluble aluminum ion (Al3+) in an “acidic condition”, thereby allowing it to be absorbed by the bloodstream upon its consumption in drinking water and foods82.

    • As the function of the Blood Brain Barrier retards with age, Al3+ in the bloodstream is able to enter and accumulate in the brain83.

    • The incidence of aluminum in the brains of Alzheimer’s victims has caused the concern of a connection to be raised, but no definitive link has been established.


    Aluminum in food and water

    Aluminum in Food and Water

    • Exposure to aluminum is unavoidable – it is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring, and abundant element.

    • 95% of aluminum intake by humans takes place in the consumption of food and water84.

    • 90% of this aluminum is excreted by normal human processes within 4 months85.

    • The remaining 10% is either secreted, or absorbed by the skeletal or renal systems, or by the brain86.


    Aluminum in food and water cont

    Aluminum in Food and Water, cont…

    • Examples of how aluminum is present in food include:

      • The use of aluminum ammonium sulfate as a buffering agent used to maintain acidity during food processing

      • Aluminum calcium silicate as an anti-caking agent to prevent food powders from compacting

      • Aluminum compounds added to frozen strawberries, maraschino cherries, and pickles to improve their appearance

      • Aluminum salts sometimes added to processed cheeses and beer

      • Naturally aluminum rich foods including potato skins, spinach, prune juice, and teas87

    • Consumption of aluminum in conjunction with certain acidic foods and drinks, such as orange juice, coffee, and wine, significantly increases the uptake of aluminum by the body’s systems88.


    Aluminum in food and water cont1

    Aluminum in Food and Water, cont…

    • Surface water treatment plants use aluminum sulfate to treat harmful colloidal matter particles and water born microorganisms by causing them to coagulate, thus making them easier to filter out89.

    • A study by the Australian Institute for Biomedical Research determined that over a period of seven or eight decades of drinking aluminum treated tap water, a microgram of aluminum would accumulate in the human brain90.


    Aluminum in medicine

    Aluminum in Medicine

    • Aluminum hydroxide is used widely as an antacid to reduce gastrointestinal distress91.

    • Aluminum intake from antacids results in ingestion levels of 840 - 5000mg/day (recommended max. weekly intake for a 130 lb adult is 420mg/day)92.

    • Aluminum salts are used to stimulate the level and duration of immunity boosting antibodies provided by a vaccine93.

    • Also, soluble aluminum compounds are used in antiperspirants – forming an aluminum hydroxide “plug” within the human sweat duct94.


    From aluminum metals to consumer products

    From Aluminum Metals to Consumer Products

    • As described earlier in this report, once the aluminum in the pot is molten, it is siphoned off into holding furnaces, either to be blended to an alloy specification or cleaned and cast into ingots”.

    • Ingots are grouped by specification and sold to the markets in which aluminum is used.

    • Primarily this includes the transportation sector (32%), the packaging sector (21%), the construction sector (13%), and the electrical sector95.


    Bauxite and aluminum a cradle to grave analysis

    ***NOTE***

    • The effects associated with the production of these consumer goods is secondary to the purposes of this report, therefore will not be discussed. The reader should instead note how aluminum is used, and where the opportunities lie for producing and using less of it.


    The transportation sector

    The Transportation Sector

    • The transportation sector is the largest market for aluminum in the United States96.

    • Aluminum recently passed plastic as the third most-used material in automobiles97.

    • Studies show that replacing 2 pounds of steel with 1 pound of aluminum to make a vehicle lighter can save 20 pounds of CO2 emissions over the life of that vehicle98.

    • The body of cars as well as components of the engine are now typically made, in part, from aluminum99.


    The transportation sector cont

    The Transportation Sector, cont…

    • Aluminum is the primary material used in aircraft, subway cars, freight railroad cars, and light high-speed-rail cars as well.

    • Aluminum or aluminum alloys are used in airplanes to lower the plane’s weight, save fuel, reduce emissions, and increase the plane’s payload100.

    • Over 80% of an aircraft’s weight is aluminum101.


    The packaging sector

    The Packaging Sector

    • Containers and packaging rank second in the market for aluminum use.

    • Aluminum’s lightness helps reduce the costs of transporting packaged consumer goods and further reduces emissions from transporting goods.

    • Aluminum is touted as an indispensable packaging item because of the benefits it possesses:

      • Heat conductivity- Strength

      • Hygiene- Impermeability

      • Non-toxicity - Corrosion resistance

      • Deadfold (stays wrapped around food items without needing further sealing)102


    Aluminum in cookware

    Aluminum in Cookware

    • Today about half of all cookware sold is made of aluminum - the potential for aluminum cookware to leach aluminum into foods has been scrutinized and debated over for decades103.

    • A recent study done at the University of Surrey in Australia have found levels of leached aluminum between 1.5-3 parts per million for wine, and 9.4 ppm in apple juice stored in aluminum containers for two years104.

    • Soft drinks in aluminum cans show levels of aluminum 6 times higher than the same soft drink stored in bottles105.

    • Beef cooked in aluminum increases its aluminum content by 38 times106.


    Aluminum and recycling

    Aluminum and Recycling

    • The most promising, and perhaps the most controversial aspect surrounding aluminum is the fact that it can be recycled indefinitely – 2/3 of the aluminum ever produced since 1886 is still in use107!

    • This does not change the fact that between 1990 and 2000, 7.1 million tons of aluminum cans (only cans!) were wasted – enough to reproduce the world’s commercial air fleet 25 times108!

    • At an avg scrap value of $.58/lb, this represents $8.236 billion in lost revenue – just in cans109!


    Aluminum cans wasted in the u s 1970 2001 total 903 billion cans

    Aluminum Cans Wasted in the U.S., 1970 – 2001; total = 903 billion cans


    Aluminum and recycling cont

    Aluminum and Recycling, cont…

    • Recycling aluminum saves 95% of the energy used to produce aluminum from bauxite – mainly because it cuts out the energy intensive smelting processes110.

    • Recycling also reduces 95% of the greenhouse emissions put out by the aluminum industry111.

    • If the 50.7 billion aluminum cans wasted in 2001 had been recycled, energy equivalent to 16 million barrels of crude oil would have been saved – enough to power 2.7 million U.S. homes, or over 1 million cars for a year112!

    • Also, emissions of 75,000 tons of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide would have been prevented113.


    Aluminum and recycling cont1

    Aluminum and Recycling, cont…

    • The Bottle Bill Resource Guide states that, “Bottle bills are a proven, sustainable method of capturing beverage bottles and cans for recycling. The refund value of the container (usually 5 or 10 cents) provides a monetary incentive to return the container for recycling114”.

    • In the 10 states where “Bottle Bill” legislation exists, approximately 85% of cans get recycled, compared with about 50% in the remaining 40 states115.

    • Bottle bills generally shift the costs of litter cleanup, recycling and waste disposal from government and taxpayers to the producers and consumers of beverage containers116.

    • This, in effect, places responsibility on the industry that creates a wasteful product in the disposal or recycling of that product117.  


    Aluminum and recycling cont2

    Aluminum and Recycling, cont…

    • A 1996 report by the U.S. Public Interest Research Group revealed that the beverage industry spent over $14 million dollars between 1989 and 1994 to defeat any attempts of a national bottle bill being passed, outspending proponents 30:1118.

    • Bottle bill opponents, as listed on the Consumer Recycling Institute’s Bottle Bill Resource Guide, include beverage container manufacturers, soft drink bottlers, beer, wine and liquor distributors and retail grocers119.

    • California Senate Bill 23, which would double redemption rates for containers in CA, is currently being debated and voted upon. A University of California study estimates that its passing would boost recycling rates to 80% diverting approximately 8,058 more tons of aluminum from landfill than are diverted currently in California120.


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • As we have seen, aluminum pervades almost every aspect of our society and lives. It affects what and how we eat, drink, consume, travel, and live day-to-day.

    • This report was designed to inform consumers about the processes involved in producing aluminum, and how these processes and their subsequent effects could be averted through recycling and the practice of consuming more responsibly.


    Conclusion cont

    Conclusion, cont…

    • As aluminum can be recycled indefinitely without degrading in quality, wasting it in the manner that we do creates avoidable, unnecessary, and immeasurable impacts on the earth, its people, and its biotic communities via the destructive and resource intensive processes of aluminum production.

    • Educating the global public on the negative effects of aluminum production and the benefits of recycling and conservation will systematically increase positive and sustainable practices around resource use to the benefit of the entire planet.


    Bibliography part i

    Bibliography, Part I

    • 1. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980

    • 2. Barham, Bradford, et al. States, Firms and Raw Materials. The University of Wisconsin Press. 1994

    • 3. http://www.world-aluminium.org/iai/publications/bauxite.html, March 1, 2003

    • 4. ibid

    • 5. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980

    • 6. http://www.world-aluminium.org/iai/publications/bauxite.html, March 1, 2003

    • 7. ibid

    • 8. Quamina, Odida T. Mineworkers of Guyana. The Bath Press, Avon. 1987

    • 9. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980

    • 10. Graham, Ronald.The aluminium industry and the Third World : multinational corporations and underdevelopment. Zed Press, London. 1982

    • 11. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980

    • 12. http://www.world-aluminium.org/iai/publications/bauxite.html, March 1, 2003

    • 13. ibid

    • 14. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980


    Bibliography part i cont

    Bibliography, Part I, cont…

    • 15. ibid

    • 16. osha materials safety data sheet, http://www.herchem.com/PDFMSDS/MSDS20%20Septic%20Tank%20Cleaner.pdf

    • 17. Jayaraman, Nityanand. October 18, 2001. Norsk-Hydro: Global Compact Violator. Corpwatch.[online]. http://www.corpwatch.org/campaigns/PCD.jsp?articleid=620

    • 18. Dev Raj, Ranjit. June 2, 1999. Bauxite TNCs Grab Tribal Land With Impunity. Inter Press Service. [online] http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/june99/05_55_006.html

    • 19. ibid

    • 20. Jayaraman, Nityanand. October 18, 2001. Norsk-Hydro: Global Compact Violator. Corpwatch.[online]. http://www.corpwatch.org/campaigns/PCD.jsp?articleid=620

    • 21. Dev Raj, Ranjit. June 2, 1999. Bauxite TNCs Grab Tribal Land With Impunity. Inter Press Service. [online] http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/june99/05_55_006.html

    • 22. ibid

    • 23. Jayaraman, Nityanand. October 18, 2001. Norsk-Hydro: Global Compact Violator. Corpwatch.[online]. http://www.corpwatch.org/campaigns/PCD.jsp?articleid=620

    • 24. ibid

    • 25. ibid

    • 26. Mintz, et al, Antilles Research Program. Working Papers in Haitian Society & Culture. Yale University. 1975

    • 27. ibid

    • 28. ibid

    • 29. ibid


    Bibliography part i cont1

    Bibliography, Part I, cont…

    • 30. ibid

    • 31. ibid

    • 32. ibid

    • 33. ibid

    • 34. ibid

    • 35. Quamina, Odida T. Mineworkers of Guyana. The Bath Press, Avon. 1987

    • 36. ibid

    • 37. http://www.world-aluminium.org/iai/publications/bauxite.html, March 1, 2003

    • 38. ibid

    • 39. ibid

    • 40. Barham, Bradford, et al. States, Firms and Raw Materials. The University of Wisconsin Press. 1994

    • 41. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980

    • 42. http://www.world-aluminium.org/iai/publications/bauxite.html, March 1, 2003

    • 43. Steady, Filomina Chioma. “Gender Equality and Ecosystem Balance: Women and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries.” Race, Gender & Class   10/31/1998   V.6; N.1   p. 13.

    • 44. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980


    Bibliography part i cont2

    Bibliography, Part I, cont…

    • 45. Two Wrongs Can Make A Right. July 14, 2001. Economist Vol. 360, Issue 8230. [online] http://0web4.epnet.com.opac.sfsu.edu:80/citation.asp?tb=1&_ug=dbs+0+ln+en%2Dus+sid+2E98C062%2DAC35%2D401C%2D801D%2D3F23CAA0AE93%40sessionmgr5+F891&_us=bs+bauxite+ds+bauxite+dstb+KS+hd+0+hs+0+or+Date+ri+KAAACBYA00211241+sm+KS+so+b+ss+SO+F24C&cf=1&fn=1&rn=6

    • 46. Persaud, Thakoor. Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries. Arno Press, New York. 1980

    • 47. Mintz, et al, Antilles Research Program. Working Papers in Haitian Society & Culture. Yale University. 1975

    • 48. ibid


    Bibliography part ii

    Bibliography, Part II

    • 49. World Aluminum Institute www.world-aluminum.org , referenced February 25, 2003

    • 50. ibid

    • 51. Energetics, “Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry, July 1997”, prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies www.oit.doe.gov/aluminum/pdfs/alprofile.pdf , referenced March 20, 2003

    • 52. World Aluminum Institute www.world-aluminum.org ,

      referenced February 25, 2003

    • 53. ibid

    • 54.ibid

    • 55.Alcoa and Portland Aluminum, “Spent Pot Lining Treatment and Fluoride Recycling Project”, Ken Mansfield, Gavin Swayn, and Jim Harpley. June 2002 http://www.alcoa.com/global/en/environment/pdf/Green_June_2002.pdf referenced May 19, 2003

    • 56. ibid

    • 57. ibid

    • 58. ibid

    • 59. World Aluminum Institute www.world-aluminum.org , referenced February 25, 2003


    Bibliography part ii cont

    Bibliography, Part II, cont…

    • 60. World Aluminum Institute www.world-aluminum.org , referenced February 25, 2003

    • 61. California Energy Commission, Consumer Energy Center www.consumerenergycenter.org/renewable/making/net.html#what Referenced September, 2002

    • 62. Ohio State University Research News Archive www.osu.edu/units/research/archive/alsmelt.htm , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 63. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program www.minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/aluminum/ Referenced March 20, 2003

    • 64. International Rivers Network, World Commission on Dams, “Brazil’s Movement of Dam-Affected People (MAB). http://www.irn.org/wcd/mab.shtml Referenced March 20, 2003

    • 65. The Fluoride Action Network. Inter-Press Service, “Environment-Chile: Broad Alliance Fights Mammoth Aluminum Plant”, by Gustavo Gonzalez www.fluoridealert.org/noranda.htm Referenced March 10, 2003

    • 66. www.hs.wisd.org/ddaughenbaugh/Pictures/alcoa_aluminum_smelter_and_mine.htm Referenced March 10, 2003


    Bibliography part ii cont1

    Bibliography, Part II, cont…

    • 67. ibid

    • 68. Union of Concerned Scientists www.ucsusa.org/energy/brf.bene.full.htmlReferenced September, 2002

    • 69. CleanTechIndia.com, Environmental Information Center http://www.cleantechindia.com/eicnew/guidelines/aluminum1.htm Referenced February 25, 2003

    • 70. International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICPS), (2002) Environmental Health Criteria 227:Fluorides. World Health Organization, UN Environment Programme, and International Labor Organization within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Pp 71-72, p164

    • 71. UNICEF Programme on Water, Environment, and Sanitation. “Fluoride in Water, An Overview”. http://www.unicef.org/programme/wes/info/fluor.htm Referenced March 21, 2003

    • 72. International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICPS), (2002) Environmental Health Criteria 227:Fluorides. World Health Organization, UN Environment Programme, and International Labor Organization within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Pp 106

    • 73. The Sustainable Energy and Economy Network, a project of the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington D.C. and the Transnational Institute in Amsterdam. www.seen.org/pages/reports/orissa.shtml , referenced March 18, 2003


    Bibliography part ii cont2

    Bibliography, Part II, cont…

    • 74. ibid

    • 75. The Fluoride Action Network. The Age (Australia) February 27, 2001, by Gabriel Lafitte. www.fluoridealert.org/../chalco.htm , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 76. International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICPS), (2002) Environmental Health Criteria 227:Fluorides. World Health Organization, UN Environment Programme, and International Labor Organization within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Pp 177, 178

    • 77. International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICPS), (1997) Environmental Health Criteria 194: Aluminum. World Health Organization, UN Environment Programme, and International Labor Organization within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. p74

    • 78. ibid

    • 79. ibid

    • 80. ibid, pp110-137

    • 81. US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/aluminum/recognition/html referenced February 25, 2003

    • 82. CNR National Research Council of Italy Institute For Biomedical Technologies, International Aluminum Network. “Process of Accumulation of Aluminum in Human Brain”, by Dr. Satoshi Tokutake. http://www.bio.unipd.it/~zatta/alumin.htm Referenced May 21, 2003


    Bibliography part ii cont3

    Bibliography, Part II, cont…

    • 83. ibid

    • 84. International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICPS), (1997) Environmental Health Criteria 194: Aluminum. World Health Organization, UN Environment Programme, and International Labor Organization within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. p 77

    • 85. ibid, p106

    • 86. Michael Brower, PhD and Warren Leon, PhD (1999) The Consumers Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical Advice From the Union of Concerned Scientists. Three Rivers Press, New York, NY, p 146

    • 87. International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICPS), (1997) Environmental Health Criteria 194: Aluminum. World Health Organization, UN Environment Programme, and International Labor Organization within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. p 78

    • 88. Michael Brower, PhD and Warren Leon, PhD (1999) The Consumers Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical Advice From the Union of Concerned Scientists. Three Rivers Press, New York, NY, p 146

    • 89. Health Canada, Aluminum and Human Health www.hc- sc.gc.ca/ehp/ehd/catalogue/general/iyh/alhuman.htm , Referenced February 12, 2003

    • 90. Michael Brower, PhD and Warren Leon, PhD (1999) The Consumers Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical Advice From the Union of Concerned Scientists. Three Rivers Press, New York, NY, p 146


    Bibliography part ii cont4

    Bibliography, Part II, cont…

    • 91. World Aluminum Institute www.world-aluminum.org , referenced February 25, 2003

    • 92. International Programme on Chemical Safety (ICPS), (1997) Environmental Health Criteria 194: Aluminum. World Health Organization, UN Environment Programme, and International Labor Organization within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. p 77

    • 93. World Aluminum Institute www.world-aluminum.org , referenced February 25, 2003

    • 94. ibid

    • 95. ibid, and www.semiseek.com/News/press_release3440.htm , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 96. The Aluminum Association, Inc., Industry Overview http://www.aluminum.org/template.cfm?Section=The_Industry Referenced March 18, 2003

    • 97. ibid

    • 98. www.semiseek.com/News/press_release3440.htm , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 99. The Aluminum Association, Inc., Industry Overview http://www.aluminum.org/template.cfm?Section=The_Industry Referenced March 18, 2003

    • 100. World Aluminum Institute www.world-aluminum.org , referenced February 25, 2003

    • 101. ibid


    Bibliography part ii cont5

    Bibliography, Part II, cont…

    • 102. ibid

    • 103. ibid

    • 104. Michael Brower, PhD and Warren Leon, PhD (1999) The Consumers Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical Advice From the Union of Concerned Scientists. Three Rivers Press, New York, NY, p 144

    • 105. ibid

    • 106. ibid

    • 107. http://www.alcoa.com/global/en/environment/further_reading.asp , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 108. The Container Recycling Institute, “Trashed Cans: The Global Environmental Impacts of Aluminum Can Wasting in America”, by Jennifer Gitlitz, June 2002. www.container-recycling.org/publications/trashedcans/TCExecSum.pdf , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 109. ibid

    • 110. Semiseek News, “The Aluminum Industry Receives EPA Climate Change Award; Association States Industry Recommendations and Support for Growth-based, Responsible Solutions”, March 27, 2002. www.semiseek.com/News/press_release3440.htm , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 111. ibid


    Bibliography part ii cont6

    Bibliography, Part II, cont…

    • 112. The Container Recycling Institute, “Trashed Cans: The Global Environmental Impacts of Aluminum Can Wasting in America”, by Jennifer Gitlitz, June 2002. www.container-recycling.org/publications/trashedcans/TCExecSum.pdf , referenced March 10, 2003

    • 113. ibid

    • 114. http://www.bottlebill.org/ , referenced May 21, 2003

    • 115. Michael Brower, PhD and Warren Leon, PhD (1999) The Consumers Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical Advice From the Union of Concerned Scientists. Three Rivers Press, New York, NY, p 143

    • 116. http://www.bottlebill.org/Support-Oppose/Support-Oppose.htm , referenced May 21, 2003

    • 117. ibid

    • 118. ibid

    • 119. ibid

    • 120. http://www.bottlebill.org/MediaCenter/Press/CARefundBillNS-0403.htm , referenced May 21, 2003


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