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Preliminary Design Review. Miguel AlanisAaron Mayne Tim BlockJason Olmstead Becca DaleAdeel Soyfoo Joseph FallonSarah Weise. Review of Concept and Market . Multi-functional, Rugged, Non- petroleum fueled Airplane to serve:

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Preliminary Design Review

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Preliminary design review l.jpg

Preliminary Design Review

Miguel AlanisAaron Mayne

Tim BlockJason Olmstead

Becca DaleAdeel Soyfoo

Joseph FallonSarah Weise

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Review of concept and market l.jpg

Review of Concept and Market

  • Multi-functional, Rugged, Non- petroleum fueled Airplane to serve:

    • Air charters, governments (surveying, mail), medical transport, or supplies delivery companies

  • Operates in rural, developing areas of the world such as Australia, South America, or even rural parts of Canada

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Design requirements l.jpg

Design Requirements

  • Payload:

    • 2000 lbs, or

    • 10 passengers

  • Range: 1200 nm

    • One-way full load

  • Takeoff Field Length: 2000 ft

  • Service ceiling: 25000 ft

  • Max speed: 250 kn

  • Weight: ≤ 12,500 lbs

  • Acquisition Cost: < $2.5 million

  • Alternate Fuel Source

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Design concept l.jpg

Design Concept

  • Main Features:

    • Tapered Wing

    • High Wing with Strut Support

    • T-Tail

    • Non Pressurized Cabin

    • Fixed Landing Gear

    • 66” Cargo Door

    • 4 ft Ground Clearance

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Design Concept

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Concept Configurations

1

4

2

  • 10 seats

  • Executive

  • Combination seats/shipping container

  • 3 shipping containers (LD-3 Standard)

3

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Sizing of Aircraft

  • TOGW: 12,432 lbs

  • W/S: 31.3 lb/ft2

  • P/W: 0.0875

  • AR: 9

  • λ = 0.3

  • Acquisition cost: $3.24 million

  • Operating cost: $424.64/hr

  • Sizing done using FLOPS Flight Optimization System, Release 6.11(internal cost model not used)

  • Calibrated Using Cessna Grand Caravan

    • TOGW error ≈ 2%

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Constraint analysis l.jpg

Constraint Analysis

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Compliance with Design Requirements

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Structure - Wing and Tail

Main and Rear Spar

Rib Members

Stringers

Fuel tanks

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Structure - Fuselage

Length = 38 ft

  • Forward Section used for main payload/passengers

  • Aft Section for stability purposes

  • 2 main keel beams running longitudinally in forward section, used to support heavy payload

  • 12 transverse square ribs/frames along fuselage length

  • 16 longitudinal stringers/longerons

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Structure landing gear l.jpg

Structure - Landing Gear

  • Non-retractable

  • Tricycle Layout

  • 2024-T6 Aluminum

  • Need to carefully choose specific tires (depends on type of runway landing)

50.76 deg

Tread = 10.54 feet

Wheelbase = 17 feet

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Structural material selection l.jpg

Structural Material Selection

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Aerodynamics

  • Airfoil NACA 4412 has the Highest cLmax

  • Slotted Flap on Entire Wing

  • CLcruse=0.4

  • [email protected]/Dmax =0.6

  • CLmax=2.4

  • Wing Area=400 ft2

  • Taper Ratio=0.3

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Drag Polar

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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C.G. Location:18.5ft

Weight Breakdown:

Payload: 2000 lbs

Crew: 410 lbs

Empty Weight: 6,113 lbs

Fuel Weigh: 3,903 lbs

Weight & Balance

Green loading plane, Blue unloading plane

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Stability

  • AC of wing

  • CG location

  • Neutral Point

  • AC of Vertical Tail

  • AC of Horizontal Tail

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Stability

  • Static Margin (SM): 16.1%

  • Neutral Point: 19.6 ft

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Performance

  • Optimal Performance Values

  • V-n Diagram

gustnormal

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Performance

  • Operating Envelope

Constant energy heights

Stall limit

Ps=0

q limit

Cruise Height

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Engine

  • Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67D

  • Delivers up to 1271 hp (1250 hp required)

  • High power to weight ratio

  • High reliability

  • Low fuel consumption (sfc at full power: 0.546 lb/hp/h)

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Propeller & Thrust produced

  • 4-bladed aluminum propeller

  • Integrated design lift coefficient cL = 0.500

  • Activity factor 140

  • Diameter 110 in

  • Rotational speed 1700 rpm

  • Blade Tip Speed Ma = 0.78

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Cost

  • Acquisition cost

  • DOC

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Conclusion

  • Will concept be successful?

    • Feasible design

    • New concept will give market advantage

    • Derived versions could offer more cabin space but shorter range

    • Competition from remodeled petrol fueled aircraft

  • Significant “open” issues

    • Stall characteristics (T-tail)

    • Finalize wing design (flap size)

    • Improve Takeoff and Landing Performance

    • Develop Bio-fuel kit for PT6A turbine

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Questions?

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Acquisition Cost Breakdown:

  • Power series function

  • Depends on wing span, AR, GTOW, thrust, cruise speed, and range

    ln(cost)= {constants}*{vector of ln(parameters)}

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Rdt e and flyaway costs l.jpg

RDT&E and Flyaway Costs:

  • DAPCA model outlined in Raymer’s text

  • Did not give an accurate acquisition cost

  • Did give accurate percentages for the RDT&E and Flyaway cost break down

    RDT&E = 0.64*(Acquisition Cost)

    Flyaway = 0.36*(Acquisition Cost)

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Slide28 l.jpg

DOC:

  • DAPCA model outlined in Raymer’s text

  • Did not give an accurate DOC, but calculated value was off by a consistent percentage

  • Calculated our DOC at current fuel prices

  • Adjust DOC according to:

    real DOC = 0.64*(calculated DOC) 

  • Added in addition costs due to increased fuel price

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


Cost assumptions l.jpg

Cost Assumptions:

  • RDT&E and Flyaway Costs:

    • 200 aircraft to break even

    • 2 flight test aircraft

    • Avionics are 7% of the flyaway cost

  • DOC:

    • 1000 FH/year

    • 1 MMH/FH

    • Properties of our fuel are the same as kerosene

    • Current fuel: $2.40 1/gal, FT: $7.40 1/gal

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Constraint Analysis

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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Sizing

  • Method

    • FLOPS

      • Input parameters

        • T/W, converted from P/W with prop numbers

        • Geometric Characteristics

        • Mission and Performance Constraints

        • Engine Definition

        • Wing Definition

      • Calibration

        • Cessna Grand Caravan

          • TOGW error aprrox. 2%

AAE 451 Senior Design Team 1


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