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The American Experiment: Higher Educating the Underserved First International Australasian Conference on Enabling Access to Higher Education University of South Australia West Campus Adelaide, Australia December 6, 2011 Tom Mortenson Senior Scholar,

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Intro l.jpg

The American Experiment:

Higher Educating the Underserved

First International Australasian Conference on

Enabling Access to Higher Education

University of South Australia West Campus

Adelaide, Australia

December 6, 2011

Tom Mortenson

Senior Scholar,

The Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education

Higher Education Policy Analyst,

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY

Intro


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  • Realities of Public Policy

  • Progressive and Regressive Policy Eras

  • Opportunity Consequences of Policy Shift


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Four Realities for Public Policy

Demographic Change

Labor Market Change

Globalization

Inequality


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Minority Shares of the Education Populations


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High School Graduates


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White HS Grads, White non-Hispanic HS Grads


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Non-White HS Grads, Non-white plus Hispanic


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K-12 Students Approved for Free or Reduced-School Lunches


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Total Employment


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Distribution of Employment by Industry


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Goods Producing Industrial Employment Shares of Total


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Service Providing Industrial Employment Shares


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Government Employment Shares


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Change in Shares of Total Employment by Industry


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Tertiary Type-A Degree Rates, 25-34 OECD & Partner Count. 2003


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Tertiary Type-A Degree Attain Rates 25-34 year olds OECD


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Change in Tertiary Type A Degree Attain. Rates 25034 yr olds OECD & Partner countries 2000-07


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Projected Tertiary Type-A Degree Attain Rate 25-34 yr in OECD 2010


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Projected Tertiary Type-A Degree Attain Rate 25-34 yr in OECD 2020


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Total Tertiary Type B & A 2007


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Median Income for Families


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Change in Median Income Families


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Discretionary Median Family Income


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Gini Indexes of Income Inequality for workers, families, households


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Gini Indexes Income Inequality White, Black, Hispanic families


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Gini Indices Income Inequality Men, Women Working Full-time, year-round


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Gini Indexes Income Inequality White, Black, Hispanic Households


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Gini Indexes Household Income Inequality by State Map


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Gini Indexes Income Inequality Before Taxes and Transfers Tot. Pop. OECD


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Gini Indexes Income Inequality After Taxes and Transfers Tot Pop. OECD


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Changes Gini Indexes Income Inequality Before & After Taxes and Transfers Tot. Pop. OECD


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Policy Eras in the United States

  • 1862 to 1980: The Progressive Policy Era:

  • Morrill Land Grant Act created state universities

  • Teachers colleges for universal K-12 education

  • Community colleges

  • Need-based financial aid for students

  • GI Bill for returning World War II military veterans

  • Supportive services for students

  • 1980 to Present: The Regressive Policy Era:

  • Federal shift from grants to loans, abandon needs-test

  • State reduction in higher education investment efforts

  • State shift from need-based grants to merit scholarships

  • Universities and colleges lust for prestige and revenue


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Policy Eras in the United States

  • 1862 to 1980: The Progressive Policy Era:

  • Morrill Land Grant Act created state universities

  • Teachers colleges for universal K-12 education

  • Community colleges

  • Need-based financial aid for students

  • GI Bill for returning World War II military veterans

  • Supportive services for students

  • 1980 to Present: The Regressive Policy Era:

  • Federal shift from grants to loans, abandon needs-test

  • State reduction in higher education investment efforts

  • State shift from need-based grants to merit scholarships

  • Universities and colleges lust for prestige and revenue


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Share Fed Student Fin Aid Based on Fin Need 1964-2010


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Share of Fed Student Fin Aid as Education Loans


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Purchasing Power of Pell Grant Max Award Public&Private


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State Fiscal Support for Operating Expenses FY1961 to FY2011


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State Fiscal Support for Operating Expenses


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Change in State Fiscal Support


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Ntl Average Resident Undergrad Tuition – Required Fees Public Inst


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Share of State Student Financial Aid Based on FinNeed 1982-2010


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State Need-Based Grant Coverage of Fed Pell Grant


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Distribution of Public 4-Yr Inst Admissions Selectivity


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Change in Distribution Public 4-Yr Inst Admissions Selectivity


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Share Public 4-Yr Inst that Enroll Freshmen


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Distribution Private 4-Yr Inst Admissions Selectivity


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Change in Distribution Private 4-Yr Inst Admissions Selectivity


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Share Private 4-Yr Inst Enroll Freshmen


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Financial Aid Resources Recvd Full-time, full-yr depend undergrads 1 Institution 2007-08


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Financial Resources & Barriers full-time, full-yr depend undergrad 1 Institution 2007-08


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Mean Unmet Financial Need by Parents’ Income Quartiles 1990 to 2008


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Mean Student Work/Loan Burden by Parents’ Income Quartiles 1990 to 2008


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Mean Net Price to Family by Parents’ Income Quartiles 1990 to 2008


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Mean Net Price to Family % of Parents Income


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  • Opportunity Consequences of Policy Shift

  • Redistribution of college enrollments

  • Stagnation in college participation rates

  • Growth in bachelor’s degree attainment mainly in the

  • inherited privilege classes

  • Growing gaps in educational attainment between shrinking

  • majority and growing minority populations

  • Growing income inequality—higher education is an “engine

  • of division”


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Low Income Student Shares of Totals


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High School Grad Rates by Family income quartiles


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College Continuation Rates by Family Income Quartiles…


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College Participation Rates by Family Income Quartiles…


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Estimated Bach Degree Completion Rates Age 24 by Family Income Quartiles…


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Estimated Baccalaureate Degree Attain. By Age 24-Family IncQuartile


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Change in Estimated Bach Degree Attainment Rate by Age 24


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Distribution of Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded by Age 24


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College Participation Rates_lowincome_nonlow


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CollegePartic Rate Gap Between_lowincome_nonlow


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Share Pell Grant Recips Enrolled Public&Private 4-yr Fy1974-2009p


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First-Choice


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Share of Undergrad Without Pell Grants


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Share of Pell Grant Recipients Enrolled at America’s Best Universities


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Tertiary Type-A Completion Rates in OEDC/Partner Countries


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Bachelor’s Degree Completion Rates by Student Characteristics 2005-2008


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Share of Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded to Males


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Final

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