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The American Experiment: Higher Educating the Underserved First International Australasian Conference on Enabling Access to Higher Education University of South Australia West Campus Adelaide, Australia December 6, 2011 Tom Mortenson Senior Scholar,

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The American Experiment:

Higher Educating the Underserved

First International Australasian Conference on

Enabling Access to Higher Education

University of South Australia West Campus

Adelaide, Australia

December 6, 2011

Tom Mortenson

Senior Scholar,

The Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education

Higher Education Policy Analyst,

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY

Intro


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Four Realities for Public Policy

Demographic Change

Labor Market Change

Globalization

Inequality






























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Policy Eras in the United States and Transfers Tot. Pop. OECD

  • 1862 to 1980: The Progressive Policy Era:

  • Morrill Land Grant Act created state universities

  • Teachers colleges for universal K-12 education

  • Community colleges

  • Need-based financial aid for students

  • GI Bill for returning World War II military veterans

  • Supportive services for students

  • 1980 to Present: The Regressive Policy Era:

  • Federal shift from grants to loans, abandon needs-test

  • State reduction in higher education investment efforts

  • State shift from need-based grants to merit scholarships

  • Universities and colleges lust for prestige and revenue


Slide34 l.jpg

Policy Eras in the United States and Transfers Tot. Pop. OECD

  • 1862 to 1980: The Progressive Policy Era:

  • Morrill Land Grant Act created state universities

  • Teachers colleges for universal K-12 education

  • Community colleges

  • Need-based financial aid for students

  • GI Bill for returning World War II military veterans

  • Supportive services for students

  • 1980 to Present: The Regressive Policy Era:

  • Federal shift from grants to loans, abandon needs-test

  • State reduction in higher education investment efforts

  • State shift from need-based grants to merit scholarships

  • Universities and colleges lust for prestige and revenue






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State Fiscal Support for Operating Expenses and Transfers Tot. Pop. OECD


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Change in State Fiscal Support and Transfers Tot. Pop. OECD

















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  • Opportunity Consequences of Policy Shift to 2008

  • Redistribution of college enrollments

  • Stagnation in college participation rates

  • Growth in bachelor’s degree attainment mainly in the

  • inherited privilege classes

  • Growing gaps in educational attainment between shrinking

  • majority and growing minority populations

  • Growing income inequality—higher education is an “engine

  • of division”













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First-Choice Fy1974-2009p







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Final Characteristics 2005-2008

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