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Biobased Technologies. Janie Fouke May 1, 1998 . Employment in Bioengineering. Pharmaceutical Industry Medical Device Industry Biotechnology Industry . Biotechnology Industry Trends. Employment of 140,000 people: up 19% (1996 to 1997) Sales of $13 B: up 20% (1996-1997)

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Biobased technologies l.jpg
Biobased Technologies

Janie Fouke

May 1, 1998


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Employment in Bioengineering

  • Pharmaceutical Industry

  • Medical Device Industry

  • Biotechnology Industry


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Biotechnology Industry Trends

  • Employment of 140,000 people: up 19% (1996 to 1997)

  • Sales of $13 B: up 20% (1996-1997)

  • University royalties: 80% of $242M earned in 1996 in biological/medical sciences

  • Companies rank in top five for R&D expenditures per employee (1995)

  • Sources (Bio Report, June 1998; Business Week 1995 R&D Scoreboard)


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Medical Technology Market

  • World wide market for medical devices and diagnostic products: $120 B (USD)

  • Single largest market: U S $58 B


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Product segments

  • Commodity disposables

  • Technology-intensive therapeutic devices

  • Imaging equipment


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Import/Export for United States

  • Manufacturing balance of trade not generally positive

  • Medical device sector +$ 7.1 B

  • Rapid growth rate

    • 1989: $ 5.5 B

    • 1997: $13.7 B


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Employment Picture (US)

  • Medical device manufacturers registered with Food and Drug Administration: 7,000

  • Average # employees: ~ 40 people

  • Salaries: >>>$$$


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Social Impact of Permanent and Interventional Devices

  • Pacemakers/Defibrillators

  • Heart valves

  • Vascular grafts

  • Intraocular lenses

  • Hip prostheses

  • Neurological stimulators


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Impact of Monitoring and DiagnosticIndustries

Exploratory surgery does not exist any more!


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Threshold of the future

  • Yesterday, we leveraged existing technologies to create innovations

  • Tomorrow’s medical advances will incorporate breakthroughs from cellular and molecular biology


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Implantable technology of the future

  • Biocompatible

  • Biointeractive

  • Biological mimicry

  • Engineering structures/processes that promote regrowth


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Short term vision

  • Tissue engineered heart valves

  • Individually grown new blood vessels

  • Regrowth of peripheral and spinal nerves


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Explosion of Data from Biological Systems

  • e.g., Information Content in Genomics of Organisms, in Molecular Dynamics of Proteins, in Population Dynamics

  • Driving New Approaches to Data Analysis and Integration of Data


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Biological Information

Three Types of Biological Information

  • 1-D Info. of chromosomes and genes

  • 3-D info. of protein molecular machines

  • 4-D info. (space+time) on complex biological systems and networks


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New Approaches to Human Disease Classification

  • Genomics/proteomics

  • Predicting an individual’s susceptibility/resistance to disease/environmental agents

  • Designing therapeutics/health policies

  • Common basis of biological systems

    • Arabidopsis human yeast Drosophila mouse


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One-D Analysis needs Informatic Tools

  • Large Scale DNA Sequencing

  • Genome-wide Genotyping

  • DNA arrays


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Global Analysis needs Nano-technology

Miniaturization Parallelization

  • Mass Spectroscopy

  • Separation Techniques

  • High Speed, Multi-parameter Cell Sorting


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Global Analysis needs Computational Biology

  • The Protein-folding Problem: How does the amino acid sequence direct its folding in three dimensions?

  • The Protein Structure-Function Problem: How does the shape of a protein permit its function?


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Global Tools Required to Decipher the Systems and their Networks

  • What are the components and their interconnections for various biological systems?

  • How is the information for these units regulated?

  • How to break up intosubsystems whose properties reflect those of the entire system?


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Challenge: Networks Integration

  • Integration of the following to address the problem

Engineering

Biology

Mathematics

Chemistry

Computer Science

  • MODERN BIOENGINEERING


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Orchid Biocomputer Networks

  • By leveraging the same technologies used to design computer chips, Orchid is designing microchemical platform technologies capable of performing high-throughput chemical synthesis, biochemical assays, and DNA analysis for applications in drug discovery and diagnostics. Analogues/variants are available in hours or days.


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Molecular Biology Networks

Biochemistry

Chemistry

Microfluidics

Microfabrication

Instrumentation

Electrical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering

Physics

Orchid’s Latest Want Ad


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Affymetrix Networks

  • DNA chips . . . A scanning technology

  • Using a large segment of human DNA as a reference, investigators rapidly compared a sequence of 3400-base pairs with that of another primate

  • Faster than generating the DNA de novo


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Food Safety: DNA probes Networks

  • Salmonella

  • Listseria

  • E. coli 0157:H7

  • Mycotoxins


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Biosensors Networks

  • Highly specific actions of biological molecules can be exploited

  • Enzymes, antibodies, microbial cells can be immobilized on solid surfaces

  • The reactions they mediate can be detected by a variety of physical and chemical means


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Bioelectronics Networks

  • Use biological molecule in IC or in optical processor

  • Build devices on molecular level: high densities of data storage/nano-sized computers

  • Irradiate naturally occurring protein with visible light: it absorbs light. Since it exists in two states, it can be used in molecular electronics/switches, and the lithographic fabrication of nanometer-scale patterns.


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Phytase Networks

  • Pigs and chickens lack the enzyme to digest a certain sugar alcohol so they excrete phosphates.

  • The gene for the enzyme (created from a genetically modified microbial source) has been inserted into tobacco seed which is then fed to the animals.


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Salt-tolerance gene Networks

  • Gene for salt tolerance has been successfully introduced into tomato, tobacco, and Arabidopsis

  • Does seawater irrigation become a possibility?


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U. S. Patent and Trademark Office Networks

  • Number of requests to patent nucleic acid sequences: 1991 4,000 1996 500,000


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More Wild Stuff Networks

  • Medical prescriptions personalized to genotype

  • Neutriceutical foods

  • Vaccines delivered through raw potatoes

  • Cosmetic companies merging with pharmaceutical companies (biologically active cosmeceuticals)


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World Economy Networks

  • Biotech, chemical, pharmaceutical, and agribusiness: all invest in molecular technologies

  • Merger mania!


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Life Sciences Industry Networks

Agri-business

Pharmaceuticals

Chemicals


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