Stomach anatomy
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Stomach Anatomy. Openings Gastroesophageal : To esophagus Pyloric : To duodenum Regions Cardiac Fundus Body Pyloric. Stomach Histology:. Layers Serosa or visceral peritoneum: Outermost Muscularis : Three layers Outer longitudinal Middle circular Inner oblique Submucosa Mucosa.

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Stomach Anatomy

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Stomach anatomy

Stomach Anatomy

  • Openings

    • Gastroesophageal: To esophagus

    • Pyloric: To duodenum

  • Regions

    • Cardiac

    • Fundus

    • Body

    • Pyloric


Stomach histology

Stomach Histology:

  • Layers

    • Serosa or visceral peritoneum: Outermost

    • Muscularis: Three layers

      • Outer longitudinal

      • Middle circular

      • Inner oblique

    • Submucosa

    • Mucosa


Stomach histology1

Stomach Histology

  • Rugae: Folds in stomach when empty

  • Gastric pits: Openings for gastric glands

    • Contain cells


Small intestine anatomy and histology

Small Intestine anatomy and Histology

  • Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption

  • Divisions

    • Duodenum

    • Jejunum

    • Ileum: Peyer’s patches or lymph nodules

  • Modifications

    • Circular folds or plicaecirculares, villi, microvilli

  • Cells of mucosa

    • Absorptive, goblet, granular, endocrine


Small intestine secretions

Small Intestine Secretions

  • Mucus

    • Protects against digestive enzymes and stomach acids

  • Digestive enzymes

    • Disaccharidases: Break down disaccharides to monosaccharides

    • Peptidases: Hydrolyze peptide bonds

    • Nucleases: Break down nucleic acids

  • Duodenal glands

    • Stimulated by vagusnerve, secretinsecretin increases water and bicarbonate secretion from duodenal (Brunner's) glands


Duodenum

Duodenum


Liver

Liver

  • Lobes

    • Major: Left and right

    • Minor: Caudate and quadrate


Blood and bile flow

Blood and Bile Flow


Pancreas

Pancreas


Small intestine anatomy

Small Intestine anatomy


Large intestine

Large Intestine

  • Cecum

    • Blind sac, vermiform appendix attached

  • Colon

    • Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

  • Rectum

    • Straight muscular tube

  • Anal canal

    • Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle)

    • External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle)

    • Hemorrhoids: Vein enlargement or inflammation


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