Philosophy of science
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Philosophy of Science. Instructor: Julian Hasford Teaching Assistant: Keith Adamson PS398 Qualitative Methods in Psychology January 13, 2009. AGENDA. Glossary: Post-Modernism Review Lecture: Philosophy of Science Memoing Exercise Next Class…. LEARNING OBJECTIVES.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of Science

Instructor: Julian Hasford

Teaching Assistant: Keith Adamson

PS398 Qualitative Methods in Psychology

January 13, 2009


Agenda

AGENDA

  • Glossary: Post-Modernism

  • Review

  • Lecture: Philosophy of Science

  • Memoing Exercise

  • Next Class…


Learning objectives

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • By the end of this session, you should be able to:

    • Analyze the main components of qualitative and quantitative research

    • Discuss the philosophical assumptions (and logic) of various scientific paradigms

    • Analyze how philosophical paradigms influence research method and substance

    • Articulate a personal stance


Post modernism

POST-MODERNISM

  • Definition

    • Intellectual movement that challenges modernist conceptions (“grand narratives”) of science, truth, and objectivity (Gergen, 2000; Patton, 2002)

    • Language can not fully capture truth or reality (Crisis of Representation)

    • Argues that truth is constructed through language, and language constructed through cultural processes (language games, consensus, power)

    • Science is social constructed

    • Values multiple truths


Post modernism1

POST-MODERNISM

  • Methodological/Theoretical Significance

    • Influential in social sciences and humanities (Psychology slower to adopt than other disciplines) (Gergen, 2000)

    • Research focuses on social construction of reality through language, symbols, metaphors, etc.

    • Phenomena treated as text

    • Analysis through deconstruction (take apart text to expose hidden assumptions, contradictions, ideological interests) (Patton, 2002)


Post modernism2

POST-MODERNISM

  • Methodological/Theoretical Significance

    • Conclusions are localized, tentative, tolerate dissensus (Johnson & Cassell, 2001)

    • Reflexivity (esp. Epistemological)

    • Influenced discourse analysis and narrative methodological orientations

    • Risk of extreme moral or epistemological relativism, which can justify oppression or undermine value of all knowledge


Post modernism3

POST-MODERNISM

  • Example

    • Examines implications of post-modernism for the discipline of work psychology

    • Work psychology dominated by positivism, excludes subjectivity (Qualitative approaches still based on positivist understanding)

    • Limits what is known about work, limits reflexivity in psychology research and practice

    • Postmodernists erode apparently self-evident meta-narratives through:

      • Identifying particular ways of seeing and acting that a discourse takes and excludes;

      • Analysing social processes that make it possible for such a discourse to be historically constituted

      • Analysing how it is reconstituted into new discursive formations

      • Identifying the effects of such a discourse upon people.


Post modernism4

POST-MODERNISM

  • Example

    • Discipline and sub-disciplines of work psychology seen as discourses that are constructed to define legitimate work psychology that exclude non-qualified members and restrict acceptable forms of knowledge

    • Phenomena such as stress, personality, motivation not seen as real objects, but as linguistic constructs taken to be real and produced by discipline

      • Examine how constructs stress come about (stressologists industry)

    • Human Resource discourse found to reflect masculine regimes of rationality that exclude and suppress women as irrational (management selection tests based on masculine norms)


Post modernism5

POST-MODERNISM

  • References

    Gergen, K. (2000). Psychology in postmodern context. American Psychologist, 56(10), 803-813.

    Johnson, P. & Cassell, C. (2001). Epistemology and work psychology: New agendas. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 125-143

    Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.


Re view

RE(VIEW)

  • Strategies of Research (Methodologies)

    • Goals

    • Design Strategies

      • Control over phenomena?

      • Use of predetermined categories?

      • Sampling?

    • Data Collection Strategies

      • Nature of data and instruments?

      • Research Relationship?

    • Analysis Strategies

      • Reasoning process?

      • Emphasis? Goals?

      • Role of researcher in analysis?


Re view1

RE(VIEW)

  • Quantitative Strategy

    • Goals

    • Design Strategies

      • Experiment

      • Randomization

      • Probability Sampling

    • Data Collection Strategies

      • Quantitative Data

      • Distance & Objectivity

      • Reductionist

    • Analysis Strategies

      • Hypothetical-Deductive: begins with hypotheses

      • Statistical verification & Generalization

      • Reductionist & Mechanistic

      • Context-free (Control)


Re view2

RE(VIEW)

  • Qualitative Strategies

    • Goals

    • Design Strategies

      • Naturalistic

      • Emergent/flexible

      • Purposeful sampling

    • Data Collection Strategies

      • Qualitative data

      • Personal engagement

      • Empathic neutrality

      • Dynamic Systems

    • Analysis Strategies

      • Unique case orientation

      • Inductive analysis & Creative synthesis

      • Holistic

      • Context

      • Reflexivity


Review

REVIEW


Philosophy of science1

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • What is philosophy of science?

    • Conceptual roots undergirding the quest for knowledge

    • Fundamental beliefs or assumptions about

      • Ontology (the nature of reality and being)

      • Epistemology (the study of knowledge)

      • Axiology (the role of values in the research process)

      • Methodology (the process and procedures of research)

      • Rhetorical structure (the language of the research) and presentation of the research)


Philosophy of science2

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Why think about philosophy of science?

    • Increases clarity of research purpose

    • Enhances reflexivity

    • Broadens and deepens theoretical sensitivity

    • Increases quality and rigor


Philosophy of science3

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Science

    • Definition

      • Systematic collection and analysis of data

      • Create knowledge and solve problems

    • Empiricism


Philosophy of science4

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Paradigms

    • Set of interrelated assumptions about the world which provides a philosophical and conceptual framework for the organized study of that world (Filstead, 1979 in Patton, 2002)

      • Ontology, Epistemology, Methodology, Axiology, Rhetorical Structure

    • Major Paradigms

      • Reality-oriented

      • Social Constructionist

      • Critical-Ideological


Philosophy of science5

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Reality-oriented Paradigms

    • Belief in external reality, where events result from underlying mechanisms or structures

    • Objectivity is desirable

    • Goals are explanation, laws, prediction, control

    • Variations

      • Positivism (Comte)

        • Real knowledge based on claims that are verifiable by direct experience (mathematical formulas); distinguish “positive knowledge” (empirically based) from theology and metaphysics (based on fallible human reason and belief)

      • Post-positivist (Popper)

        • Human ability to gain real knowledge is limited. Falsification over verification as criteria for assessing claims

      • Realism

        • Similar to post-positivism. Recognize subjectivity and takes pragmatic rather formalistic approach to research. No difference between qualitative and quantitative methods.


Philosophy of science6

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Social Constructionist Paradigms

    • Believe in multiple, equally valid realities (subjective and socially constructed)

    • Goals are understanding lived experience (verstehen)

    • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle


Philosophy of science7

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Critical Paradigms

    - Believe that reality mediated by power relations within social, historical contexts

    • Goals are emancipation and transformation


Philosophy of science8

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Ontology

    • Focus

      • Nature of being and reality

      • What can be known

    • Paradigmatic

      • Positivism: One true external reality, operates by universal laws, can be known with some certainty

      • Constructivism

      • Critical


Philosophy of science9

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Epistemology

    • Focus

      • Theories of Knowledge (how we know, who can know)

      • Relationship between Knower and Known

    • Paradigmatic

      • Positivism

      • Constructivism

      • Critical


Philosophy of science10

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Methodology (and Methods)

    • Focus

      • The way of doing research (Design, Data Collection, Analysis)

      • Methods are the how of doing research

    • Paradigmatic

      • Positivism

      • Constructivism

      • Critical


Philosophy of science11

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Axiology

    • Focus

      • The role of values in research

      • Standpoint, Research Relationship

    • Paradigmatic

      • Positivism

      • Constructivism

      • Critical


Philosophy of science12

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Rhetorical Structure

    • Focus

      • Language

      • Voice

    • Paradigmatic

      • Positivism

      • Constructivism

      • Critical


Philosophy of science13

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Video

    • Questions

      • What are the author’s claims?

      • What epistemological assumptions inform the author’s claims?

      • What epistemological assumptions are the hosts criticisms based upon?

      • Do you agree with the epistemological basis of the author’s claims and/or the hosts’ criticisms?


Philosophy of science14

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Video


Philosophy of science15

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

  • Video

    • Questions

      • What are the author’s claims?

      • What epistemological assumptions inform the author’s claims?

      • What epistemological assumptions are the hosts criticisms based upon?

      • Do you agree with the epistemological basis of the author’s claims and/or the hosts’ criticisms?


Exercise

EXERCISE

  • Memoing

    • Short written documents that are produced throughout qualitative research

      • Document researcher’s analytical process

      • Stimulates reflection and analysis

      • Promote creative insights through brainstorming and freewriting

      • Develop writing skills


Exercise1

EXERCISE

  • Memoing

    • Format

      • Typed

      • ~1 page (single-spaced)

      • Title (indicates content) and date

      • Sentence form. Should be coherent.


Exercise2

EXERCISE

  • Instructions

    • Write memo on following questions

      • What paradigm do you identify most closely with? Why?

      • How would that paradigm influence our approach to studying money in this class?

        • Purpose, Methodology, Axiology

      • What are some limitations to what we can know using this approach?

    • Turn to partner and discuss your thoughts


Next class

NEXT CLASS…

  • Theoretical Orientations


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