Introduction of surgery
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外科学绪论 Introduction of Surgery. 一、现代外科学的发展 Development of Modern Surgery. 解剖学 Anatomy. John Hunter (1728-1793), the father of experimental surgery and a superb anatomist and teacher. 麻醉 Anesthesia.

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外科学绪论 Introduction of Surgery

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Introduction of surgery

外科学绪论Introduction of Surgery

Development of modern surgery

一、现代外科学的发展Development of Modern Surgery

  • 解剖学 Anatomy

John Hunter (1728-1793), the father of experimental surgery and a superb anatomist and teacher.

Introduction of surgery

  • 麻醉 Anesthesia

Willam t.G. Morton (1819-1868), a Boston dentist whose successful demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846, at the Massachusetts Gneeral Hospital was a landmark in the history of surgery

Introduction of surgery

Joseph Lister (1827-1912), the originator of antiseptic surgery

3. 抗菌术 Antisepsis

Introduction of surgery

  • 输血 Blood transfusion

Richard Lewisohn (1875-1961), a surgeon at the Mount Sinai Hospital, introduced the modern technique of blood transfusion, developed from his discovery of a method of preventing coagulation of the blood outside the body.

Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943), one of the first scientists to study the physical processes of immunity. He is best known for his identification and characterization of the human blood groups, A, B, and O.

Introduction of surgery

Innovators & Pioneers in Surgery

Theodor Kocher (1841-1917), professor of surgery at the University of Berne and pioneer in the development of surgery of the thyoid. He received the Nobel Prize in 1909.

Theodor Billroth (1829-1894), professor at the University of Vienna and pioneer abdominal surgeon, Billroth was one of the most influential teachers of his time.

Introduction of surgery

John H. Gibbon (1903-1973), pioneer cardiothoracic surgeon who developed extracorporeal circulation.

Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), an experimental surgeon interested in wound healing, tissue culture, organ transplantation, and blood vessel anastomosis. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1912.

Introduction of surgery



Introduction of surgery

The role of SSMU in the development

of surgery in China

1954 二尖瓣分离 Commissurotomy of mitral stenosis

1958 大面积灼伤 Severe Burn

1963 断肢再植 Replantation of cut limb

1977 肝移植 The 1st case of Liver transplantation

1978 心脏移植 The 1st case of Heart transplantation

1990s- 二医外科全面发展

  • 灼伤外科、消化外科、胆胰外科

    Burn surg, Digestive S., P. Biliary

  • 口腔外科、整形外科、小儿心脏外科

    Stomatological S. Plastic S. Pediatric Cardio S.

Category of surgery

二、外科学范畴Category of Surgery

  • 外科疾病分类

    Classification of Surgical Diseases

    1) 损伤Trauma

    — mechanical thermal

    chemical electrical……

    2) 感染Infection

    3) 肿瘤Neoplasia Benign, Malignant

    4) 畸形Anatomical abnormalities

    Congenital, Acquired

Introduction of surgery

5) 内分泌功能失调Metabolic & Hormonal disorder

6) 梗塞与缺血Infarction & Ischamia

7) 其它Others


寄生虫病Parasite diseases

静脉曲张Vein varicose

2 development of surgical specialties

2. 外科专业发展Development of Surgical Specialties

  • 工作对象和性质

    实验外科 Eexperimental Surgery

    临床外科 Clinical Surgery

Introduction of surgery

2) 人体解剖系统

骨科 Arthrosteopedic surgery

颌面外科Dentofacial surgery

心胸外科Cardiothoracic surgery

泌尿外科Urologic surgery


普通外科General surgery

(腹部外科) Abdominal surgery

Introduction of surgery

3) 性病性质

肿瘤外科Neoplastic surgery

急症外科Emergency surgery

创伤外科Trauma surgery

烧伤外科Burn surgery

4) 手术方式

整复外科Plastic surgery



微创外科Minimally invasive surgery

Introduction of surgery

5) 年龄

小儿外科Pediatric Surgery

成人外科Adult Surgery

6) 专业




3 general surgery special surgery

3. 外科总论与各论General Surgery & Special Surgery

外科学总论 General Surgery



外科学各论Special Surgery



Introduction of surgery

● 外科分子生物学

Surgical molecular biology

● 外科免疫学

Surgical immunology

● 无菌术

Aseptic technique

● 外科水、电解质和酸碱平衡

Fluid and electrolyte management

and acid-base balance

● 输血

Blood transfusion

Introduction of surgery

●外科休克Surgical shock

●外科营养Surgical nutrition


Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MODS



Surgical intensive care

Introduction of surgery


Brain-cardiopulmonary Resuscitation


Pain management & Analgesia


Paraoperative management

●门诊外科Outpatient surgery

●外科感染Surgical infection


Introduction of surgery


●烧伤与冷伤Burns & Cold injury


●器官移植Organ transplantation

●组织工程Tissue engineering

●腔镜外科Laparoscopic & thorascopic surgery

●内镜外科Endoscopic surgery

●外科介入治疗Surgical intervention treatment

How to learn surgery

三、如何学习外科How to learn surgery

●外科医师的职业道德 Moral Character

●理论联系实践Theory and Practice

●外科基础Basic theory

Basic knowledge

Basic technique

Some figure of speech about the basic demands

形象化的要求Some figure of speech about the basic demands

Spunk of tiger — 胆大

Eyes of eagle — 眼明

Heart of mother — 心细

Hands of women — 手巧

Introduction of surgery

学 问

- Learn to find questions

- Learn to ask questions

- Learn to solve questions

Books are you best teachers

Library is your best school

Introduction of surgery


Now, you may have a good start

- why to learn

- how to learn

Well begun, half done.



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