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Minerals. Feldspar Minerals. Feldspar Minerals: group of silicates; mineral of crust, cleavage at 90 with flat, rectangular, glassy surfaces 1. Albite ( Plagioclase): Plagioclase Feldspar: calcium to sodium rich; example is albite ; has striations (thin parallel grooves)

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Feldspar minerals
Feldspar Minerals

  • Feldspar Minerals: group of silicates; mineral of crust, cleavage at 90 with flat, rectangular, glassy surfaces

  • 1. Albite ( Plagioclase): Plagioclase Feldspar: calcium to sodium rich; example is albite; has striations (thin parallel grooves)

  • 2. Amazonite (Microcline)  

  • 3. Orthoclase Group: Orthoclase Feldspar: Feldspar group; also known as potassium feldspar KAlSi3O8


Silicates
Silicates

  • Mica Group: silicate; perfect cleavage; in one direction it splits into sheets; examples are muscovite (colorless or silvery); biotite (black with magnesium and iron); lepidolite (lilac or rose colored)

  • Amphibole group: silicate; two directions of cleavage not at 90; narrow elongated crystals; example is hornblend ( dark contains magnesium and iron)

  • Pyroxene group: two directions of cleavage at 90; typically dark; example is augite( dark with magnesium and iron)


Other minerals
Other Minerals

  • Clay mineral: Silicate; weathered feldspar; very fine grained; earthy luster; smooth; example is Kaolinite

  • Non-Silicate Minerals: 8% of earth’s crust; element, oxides, sulfides, etc.

  • Carbonates: non silicate; example is calcite (CaCO3) with limestone and marble

  • Halides & Sulfides: evaporate minerals


Classes of silicates
Classes of Silicates

  • Sorosilicates

  • Cyclosilicates

  • Inosilicates

  • Phyllosicates

  • Tectosilicates


Extra info
Extra Info

  • Quartz or quartz crystal, a nearly pure silicon dioxide specimen occurs in most igneous and practically all metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

  • Lepidolite, muscovite, and biotite exhibit cleavage with weak bonds in only one direction.

  • Halite is classified as an evaporite due to its having been formed by the evaporation of saline water within partially enclosed basins.

  • Almandine garnet is able to overpower and displace surrounding solid material during its formation so that it almost always develops its characteristic crystal faces.

  • Bornite or chalcopyrite, often associated with the minerals sphalerite and galena, is the main source of copper.


Extra info1
Extra Info

  • Sphalerite is a major source of zinc.

  • Hematite’s streak is always reddish brown in color in spite of its actual color being brown, red or silver.

  • Gold has a specific gravity of 19.3.

  • Feldspar is the most common mineral found in Earth’s crust.

  • Opal is not a crystalline solid and is, instead, classified as a mineraloid.


Extra info2
Extra Info

  • Galena is the primary source of lead.

  • Staurolite consists of a basic silicate of iron and aluminum in prismatic orthorhom- bic crystals often twinned so as to resemble a cross.

  • Fluorite, represented by its more rare octahedral crystal form at this station, occurs naturally in nearly every color of the spectrum.

  • Amazonite is a form of microcline named for a South American rainforest where it is nowhere to be found.

  • Ulexite’s optical effect is created by individual fibers acting as fiber-optic cables, transmitting light from one surface to the other.


Extra info3
Extra Info

  • Sodalite has a pleasant blue color, usually includes white veins or streaking, and is commonly used as a carving stone.

  • Rhodonite, a pink and red specimen, often has black manganese oxide veins running through it, giving it a distinct appearance of pink with black crisscrossing lines.

  • Dolomite’s crystal habits include saddle shaped rhombohedral twins and simple rhombs, some with slightly curved faces.

  • Beryl has several varieties, including the emerald specimen at this station.


What are the two most abundant elements by mass found in Earth's crust?

  • aluminum and iron

    2. sodium and chlorine

    3. calcium and carbon

    4. oxygen and silicon



Common minerals
Common Minerals and splits with cubic cleavage?


Hematite
Hematite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Used for mining iron ore

  • Has a reddish brown streak because of the iron and oxygen present, making rust

  • Classified as oxide

  • Has higher specific gravity than corundum

  • Streak test would be a good test to identify; by crushing will notice blood red powder

  • Silver or gray in appearance

  • When magnetite reacts with oxygen, hematite will form

  • Rich source of iron

  • Hardeness: 5-6


Goethite
Goethite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Used for mining iron ore

  • Is classified as a hydroxide


Limonite
Limonite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Also called brown iron ore or brown hematite


Tremolite
Tremolite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Has another form, Asbestos, can be used as a fire retardant


Copper
Copper and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Native Element/Mineral

  • Same hardness as bornite

  • Is very conductive

  • Is used to make the alloy, Brass


Bornite
Bornite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Same hardness as copper

  • Is a copper, iron sulfide

  • Is an ore of copper

  • Used in jewelry


Corundum
Corundum and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Is the 2nd hardest natural mineral known to man

  • Diamond is four times harder

  • Used for abrasive and as a gemstone

  • Classified as oxide

  • Mineral of rubies and sapphires

  • Hexagonal crystal system

  • Hematite family

  • Chemical formula: Al2O3

  • Hardness: 9


Aragonite
Aragonite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Carbonate mineral

  • Is unstable at normal temperatures at Earth’s surface

  • Has magnesium in its composition

  • Same chemical formula as calcite and therefore is polymorph of calcite

  • CaCO3

  • Different crystalline structre than calcite; but when heated will form calcite

  • Softer than feldspar

  • Orthorhombic

  • Specific Gravity 2.94


Calcite
Calcite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Carbonate mineral

  • Transparent variety is called Iceland spar

  • Primary component of cave formation

  • Same chemical formula as aragonite and therefore is polymorph of aragonite

  • Exhibits effervesce

  • Calcite is made by plankton and falls to bottom of sea when plankton die


Azurite
Azurite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Copper carbonate

  • About same hardness as malachite

  • Classified as carbonate and thus related to calcite and dolomite

  • Classified as copper ores

  • Used as pigments, minor ores of copper, and ornamental

  • Does not effervesce in hydrochloric acid


Malachite
Malachite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Copper carbonate

  • Can replace azurite over time

  • About same hardness as azurite

  • More common than azurite

  • classified as carbonate and thus related to calcite and dolomite

  • Classified as copper ores

  • Used as pigments, minor ores of copper, and ornamental

  • Will effervesce in diluted hydrochloric acid

  • Crystal System: Monoclinic


Graphite
Graphite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Is primarily composed of carbon

  • Can conduct electricity on one plane of tetrahedrally bonded carbon atoms

  • Main function is lubricant

  • Also used in pencils, control rods of nuclear reactors, batteries

  • Found in China, Brazil, Canada, Madagascar, Sri Lanka

  • Pure Deposits in Borrowdale, England

  • Hexagonal crystal system


Silver
Silver and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Native Element

  • The coating on the spoon

  • Reacts with sulfur and tarnishes

  • Best conductor of electricity

  • Crystal System: Cubic

  • Easily tarnished in air and is therefore rarely found in its pure form


Sphalerite
Sphalerite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Is a zinc, iron sulfide

  • Hardness is a little harder than copper

  • Major ore of zinc

  • Is commonly found in sedimentary environments in evaporate deposits, volcanic activity

  • When mixed with sulfur and water produces hydrogen sulfide gas


Sulfur
Sulfur and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Native Element

  • When mixed with sphalerite and water produces hydrogen sulfide gas

  • Causes acid rain

  • Used in pesticides, gunpowder, and fungicides

  • Crstal System: Orthorhombic


Lepidolite
Lepidolite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Could be called a Potassium-Aluminum-Silicate

  • Also has a massive form and is often associated with tourmaline


Muscovite
Muscovite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Could be called a Potassium-Aluminum-Silicate

  • Elastic


Biotite
Biotite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Could be called a Potassium-Aluminum-Silicate

  • Elastic


Dolomite
Dolomite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • CaMg(CO3)2

  • rhombohedral cleavage

  • Also known as dolomite rock

  • Constituent of dolostone

  • Form alternative of limestone with addition of magnesium

  • Is a double carbonate and therefore does not dissolve as rapidly or effervesce as rapidly as calcite


Gypsum
Gypsum and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Classified with evaporites, CaSO4∙2H2O

  • Also known as rock gypsum

  • Used for plaster

  • Generally soft

  • Varieties include selenite (clear with rhombohedral cleavage), alabaster (fine grain and massive), satin spar (fibrous)


Alabaster gypsum
Alabaster Gypsum and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Could be used to make Plaster of Paris

  • Has the mineral Calcium

  • It could be used as a fertilizer.


Epidote
Epidote and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Classified as Sorosilicate mineral


Olivine
Olivine and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Magnesium Iron Sillicate mineral

  • Crystal System: Orthorhombic

  • It could be used as an abrasive because of its hardness

  • It is found in many iron-nickel meteorites

  • Is a neosilicate

  • Often glassy

  • Exhibits conchoidal fractures

  • Mg and Fe rich

  • Most abundant in earth’s mantle


Quartz
Quartz and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Silicate mineral

  • Second most abundant of crust

  • Constituent in sandstone and quartzite

  • Has conchoidal fracture


Amethyst
Amethyst and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Major use is for jewelry, mineral

  • A type of quartz


Kaolinite
Kaolinite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Used for medications, paper filler; make pottery

  • Is white and powdery


Apatite
Apatite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Softer than feldspar

  • It is part of your bone structure and makes up the teeth of all vertebrates

  • Used as plant fertilizers to alter taste

  • Main source of phosphate in world

  • Crystal System: hexagonal


Talc and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Made of hydrous magnesium silicate

  • Used in lubricanys, baby powder,plastics, and rubber, soapstone ornaments

  • Crystal System: monoclinic


Fluorite
Fluorite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Belongs to group of minerals containing halogens

  • Harder than halite, but appearance is same

  • Used in iron smelting, added to water to prevent kidney disease, lenses, nonstick coatings

  • Has same isometric crystal system as halite

  • Has fluorescent properties when under UV lights

  • Made of Calcium Fluoride

  • Crystal System: cubic


Halite
Halite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Belongs to a group of minerals containing halogens

  • Would most likely be found where seas or lakes have dried up

  • Same isometric crystal system as fluorite

  • Is necessary for the human body

  • NaCl evaporate

  • Also called rock salt

  • Has cubic cleavage

  • Used to melt ice

  • Can be taken out of sea water or mined

  • Found in Germany, England, Poland and US


Galena
Galena and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Has a structure identical to halite

  • An ore of lead

  • Classified as a sulfide

  • Specific gravity is about two times heavier than magnetite

  • Specific gravity is about 7.5 times heavier than that amount of water

  • Is a natural semiconductor and is used in televisions, GPS systems and telephones

  • First used as kohl until found to be poisonous


Pyrite
Pyrite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Has structure analogous to galena

  • Can be called Fools gold or Sulfide mineral

  • Golden or black streak

  • Golden yellow in color

  • Grows in shiny cubes

  • Found in Japan, Spain, US

  • Used in jewelry


Chalcopyrite
Chalcopyrite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Unlike pyrite, contains copper, and is a copper iron sulfide

  • Leading source of copper because it is found in large quntities and distributed widely

  • Also called fools gold or sulfide

  • Found in igneous rocks


Magnetite
Magnetite and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Has two forms of iron causing the electrons to transfer between the different ions

  • Specific gravity is about the average for metallic minerals

  • Classifiead as an iron oxide

  • Can be made into magnets

  • Black or metallic

  • Found South Africa, US, Sweden on black sand beaches


Mica and splits with cubic cleavage?

  • Black, brown, green, or violet sometimes found colorless and shiny

  • Breaks into smooth thin sheets

  • Used in paints

  • Found in Brazil, India, US, Madagascar

  • Crystal System: monoclinic

  • Comes from Latin word meanining shine

  • Flakes sparkle in schist

  • Very resistant to heat and very flat

  • Silicate


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