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The Relationship Between Scaffolding Metacognitive Strategies identified through Dialogue Journals and Hispanic Second Graders’ Reading Comprehension, Science Achievement, and Metacognition using Expository Text. Iliana Franco-Castillo Florida International University. Purpose.

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Iliana Franco-Castillo Florida International University

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Iliana franco castillo florida international university

The Relationship Between Scaffolding Metacognitive Strategies identified through Dialogue Journals and Hispanic Second Graders’ Reading Comprehension, Science Achievement, and Metacognition using Expository Text

Iliana Franco-Castillo

Florida International University


Purpose

Purpose

  • Most primary students are immersed in narrative text from the time they are very young, but as they progress through the grades in school, they often are not systematically drawn into reading expository texts, and lack the strategies to handle such textbooks.

  • According to Duke (2000), there is a need to scaffold primary students’ understanding of expository text to build comprehension and engagement with this type of text.

  • The Rand Study Group call for further research on reading comprehension strategy instruction, the conditions in which strategy instruction leads to improved reading comprehension, and the role of direct strategy instruction in inquiry-based content areas (Randi, Grigorenko, and Sternberg, 2005).


Statement of the problem

Statement of the Problem

  • This investigation will test the relationship between scaffolding metacognitive strategies identified through dialogue journals and Hispanic second graders’ reading comprehension, science achievement, and metacognition using expository text.

  • This study will address the problem by seeking to examine the gains in reading comprehension, science achievement, and metacognitive functioning of predominantly Hispanic second grade students interacting with their teacher using dialogue journals alongside their expository science texts.


Rationale

Rationale

  • Although young children grasp decoding skills and fluency in order to read passages at their grade level, they often have a difficult time comprehending text, and in particular content area text (Allington & McGill-Franzen, 2009). Consequently, as students enter the intermediate grades many are unable to follow the textbook on their own.

    • The proposed study will provide teachers with the opportunity for explicit instruction in expository text which will enable them to discuss text structures, reading strategies, and metacognitive skills through the use of dialogue journals.


Rationale1

Rationale

  • Barbara Moss (1997) continued the research of Pappas (1993) to explore the importance of retellings to examine children’s comprehension of expository text.

  • Her research provides further understanding of elementary grade children’s comprehension of and response to expository text

    • The proposed study will support and extend Moss’ research by using dialogue journals to demonstrate the ability of young learners to infer, summarize and relate text to self and text to world.


Rationale2

Rationale

  • Langer proposes the idea of envisionment building (Langer, 1989, 2004), in where throughout the reading process, the individual produces a series of envisionments creating schemata on what they understand, predictions about what is going to occur, and emotional responses to what is occurring as they read.

  • Langer and Filhan (2000) described literacy as “situated cognition” with the approach to comprehension emphasizing the contribution of a variety of macrostructure factors in the transaction between reader and text.

    • The proposed study using dialogue journals as an intervention during content area reading will follow Langer & Filhan’s idea of “situated cognition”. The use of dialogue journals will allow the researcher to track students’ metacognitive thinking and responses to text to monitor growth in content area understanding and comprehension.


Rationale3

Rationale

  • Duffy et al. (1987) conducted research on how to make decisions about when and how to explain the mental processing associated with using reading skills as strategies. This research argues for the naturalistic study of instructional phenomena, in which instruction is viewed as a collaborative interaction between the minds of teachers and students.

  • Duffy et al. calls for future instructional research on building an understanding of the subtle complexities which characterize the reciprocal mediation between teachers providing responsive explanations and students engaged in learning.

    • The proposed study will emulate Duffy et al. by using authentic materials (basal series)

    • The proposed study will support and extend Duffy et al. call for the naturalistic study of instructional phenomena by emphasizing dialogic interaction between teacher and student.


Significance of the study

Significance of the Study

  • The proposed study will contribute to the field by:

    • exploring a potentially more effective method of teaching comprehension of expository text by scaffolding using dialogue journals and metacognitive strategies.

    • exposing students at an early age to the importance of metacognitive thinking (providing the necessary skills to apply this new study strategy)

    • studying a transactional form of learning environment and moving away from the traditional form of instruction I-R-E: initiation, response, evaluation (Raphael, George, Weber, and Nies, 2009)


Theoretical framework

Theoretical Framework

  • The Rand Study Group formulated a three-dimensional definition of reading comprehension that synthesized transactional, social, and functional theories of reading comprehension. The proposed study will pursue these theories as a structure to its framework.

  • Sociocultural Theory

    • Sociocultural perspectives of learning assume learners actively construct knowledge in dialogic interactions with others (Vygotsky, 1978).

      • A classroom that includes sociocultural aspects will enable students to develop their learning and understanding through talk and interaction with others.

    • Social learning environments enable learners to observe and interact with more knowledgeable others as they engage in cognitive processes they may not be able to engage in independently (Almasi & York, 2009; Vygotsky, 1978).

    • Mediation: human beings purposefully interpose tools between them and their environment, in order to modify it and obtain certain benefits. These psychological tools enable higher mental processes


Theoretical framework1

Theoretical Framework

  • Transactional theory of reading and literary response (Rosenblatt, 1978, 1985, 1988).

    • Rosenblatt’s transactional theory posits a reciprocal role of the reader in the reading event.

      • The reader can interpret his/her personal understanding in relation to that of the author, teacher, and world.

    • Advocates for discussion in classrooms emphasizing the importance of evolving from the traditional form of instruction to a more teacher-student interactive approach.

      • Dialogue journals are nurtured in social learning environments where students are able to assume the role of the reader and the teacher is there to interact and guide the learner.

  • Functional theory

    • Reading comprehension focuses on the purposes of reading, such as for gathering information or for enjoyment.


Theoretical framework2

Theoretical Framework


Research questions

Research Questions

  • Is there a relationship between the use of dialogue journals and reading comprehension as measured by the FAIR Broad Diagnostic Inventory for second grade Hispanic students?

  • Is there a relationship between the use of dialogue journals and science achievement as measured by Scott Foresman end of chapter comprehension exams for second grade Hispanic students?

  • Is there a relationship between the use of dialogue journals and metacognition as measured by Metacomprehension Strategy Index for second grade Hispanic students?


Participants

Participants

  • In the proposed study, the participants (n = 80) will be recruited from a single suburban Title I elementary school in Miami, Florida. The participants are 7-8 year old predominantly Hispanic second graders.

  • The participants will be grouped in four different heterogeneous second grade classrooms. Two classrooms will be experimental classrooms and two will be comparison classrooms.


Measures

Measures

  • The data will collected using three different measures:

    • Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading (FAIR) Broad Diagnostic Inventorycomponent

    • Scott Foresman Science End of Chapter tests

    • Metacomprehension Strategy Index (Schmitt, 1990)

    • Metacognitive Scaffolding Rubric

      • Oral Metacognitive Scaffolding Rubric (OMSR)

      • Dialogue Journal Metacognitive Scaffolding Rubric (DJMSR)


Study procedures

Study Procedures

  • The proposed study will be conducted throughout 34 weeks of the 2012-2013 Miami Dade County Public school year consisting of two phases of science instruction and three assessment timepoints. Treatment will begin during the 19th week of school and will last for 13 weeks.

  • The summer prior to the study:

    • participating teachers will attend a two part metacognition workshop to aid in the teacher directed metacognitive scaffolding during science instruction.

    • Teachers will be provided with a researcher made handbook to inform them on metacognitive strategies, following Schraw (1998) Strategy Evaluation Matrix.


Science instruction

Science Instruction

  • Phase one (week 1- 18)

    • The school’s science curriculum will be implemented biweekly within a 50-minute block with the implementation of Scott Foresman second grade science textbooks, workbooks, and FCAT prep books.

    • Grade level meetings will be held weekly in order to assure that all classroom instruction is following the Miami Dade County Common Core Sunshine State Standards pacing guide, as well as implementing oral metacognitive strategies.

      • the researcher and trained FIU volunteers will randomly observe science instruction, using the OMSR, to measure the use of metacognitive strategies during oral discussion for each participating teacher (n=4) during three separate timepoints.


Science instruction1

Science Instruction

  • Phase two (week 19-32)

    • Students in the comparison classroom will continue to receive regular science instruction using oral metacognitive strategies.

    • Students in the experimental classroom will begin the dialogue journal intervention.

      • Dialogue journals consists of four major points: (a) writing lesson title, (b) using three block format to write notes or illustrations based on vocabulary, important facts, and captions presented in the lesson, (c) teacher scaffolded remarks, and (d) student responses.


Phase two week 19 32

Phase two (week 19-32)

  • The first 15 minutes of the science block will consist of whole-group instruction focusing on the lesson of the week or day. Together, the class and the teacher will read the assigned pages for the chapter. Oral discussion will take place to obtain students prior knowledge and understanding of the assigned lesson.

  • For the remaining 30 minutes, the class will independently complete their dialogue journal entry taking notes on the important aspects of the lesson.

  • After every journal entry teachers will respond to student’s entries using metacognitive strategies to scaffold misconceptions or misunderstandings from the text. Students will then be given additional time to complete the metacognitive organizer, or to respond back to any pertinent teacher responses.


Phase two week 19 321

Phase two (week 19-32)

  • Grade level meetings will be held weekly in order to assure that all classroom instruction is following the Miami Dade County Common Core Sunshine State Standards pacing guide

    • the researcher and trained FIU volunteers will randomly observe science instruction

      • Control classroom: continue the use of OMSR, to measure the use of metacognitive strategies during oral discussion.

      • Experimental classroom: The researcher will randomly select student journals and verify that the dialogue journal process is being conducted appropriately by completing the dialogue journal metacognitive scaffolding rubric (DJMSR). The researcher will indiscriminately select two journals from each instructional level group (one from each experimental class) on a monthly basis n=12 (6 from each experimental class).

        • In order to reduce bias and increase consistency, one trained graduate student from F.I.U. will assist the researcher in completing the DJMS rubric for all the participants (n= 40) through out the intervention.


Assessment timepoints

Assessment Timepoints

Assessment timepoint 1:

  • First two weeks of school (August)

    • FAIR Broad Diagnostic Inventory (FAIR) will be administered by teachers and paraprofessionals to obtain students’ initial reading comprehension scores.

    • The Metacomprehension Strategy Index (Schmitt, 1990) pre-test will be administered during a 30 minute group session the first week of school to obtain students’ self-report scores on metacognition strategy use.

  • Science baseline comprehension scores will be obtained by gathering a mean of individual student scores on end of chapter Scott Foresman exams throughout the first 15 weeks of instruction.


Assessment timepoints1

Assessment Timepoints

Assessment timepoint 2:

  • Week 16 and 17:

    • Teacher and paraprofessionals will conduct the FAIR Broad Diagnostic Inventory to obtain the reading comprehension scores after 15 weeks of metacognitive scaffolding.

  • Science comprehension scores will be obtained by gathering a mean of individual student scores on end of chapter Scott Foresman exams conducted between the 19th and 32nd week of instruction.


Assessment timepoints2

Assessment Timepoints

Assessment timepoint 3:

  • Week 33-35:

    • Teacher and paraprofessionals will conduct the FAIR Broad Diagnostic Inventory to obtain reading comprehension scores after treatment was implemented.

    • The Metacomprehension Strategy Index (Schmitt, 1990) post-test will be conducted to obtain students self-report scores on metacognition strategy use.


Research design

Research Design

  • Quasiexperiemental study using a two group (experimental, control) non-randomized longitudinal time design (Newman, Newman, Brown, & McNeely, 2006) with repeated measures

    • This method will allow the researcher to control for typical age-related change and development. By creating a baseline for each student, the researcher will be able to analyze each student’s normal growth and consider this growth when interpreting the results.

    • Between-subject control will be maintained by comparing the results of the experimental group who received the dialogue journal instruction to the comparison group who did not receive the dialogue journal instruction during Phase 2.

      • By using the multiphase design, teacher and classroom effects can be measured and statistically controlled.


Statistical analysis

Statistical Analysis

  • Preliminary correlations will be conducted to determine the demographic variables (age, gender, etc.) that should be included as control variables in any further analyses.

  • Effect size will be calculated using Cohen’s (1977) representational model

  • Power analysis will be calculated to determine the probability of a Type II error at a level of .05, given the sample size of N=80, it is necessary to calculate the power for this study.


Statistical analysis1

Statistical Analysis

  • Multiple linear regression will be conducted, using the SPSS statistical package, to measure the rate of change in Scott Foresman end of chapter comprehension tests. Multiple Linear Regression will also be used to calculate coefficients R and r.

  • Repeated measures ANOVA will be conducted, using the SPSS statistical package, to determine if there is a significant difference between the independent and dependent variables, while controlling for age, gender, and classroom effects. The alpha level was set at .05, in order to control for the possibility of significance.


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