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Towards Management of Future Internet. Mi-jung Choi, Sungsu Kim DP&NM Lab. Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering POSTECH, Korea Email : [email protected], [email protected] Outline. Why Future Internet? What is Future Internet? Status of Current Internet

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Towards management of future internet

Towards Management of Future Internet

Mi-jung Choi, Sungsu Kim

DP&NM Lab.

Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering


Email : [email protected], [email protected]



  • Why Future Internet?

  • What is Future Internet?

  • Status of Current Internet

    • History of Internet Growth

    • Merits and Demerits of Future Internet

  • Summary of research effort of Future Internet

    • FIND, GENI, FIRE, JGN2, etc.

  • Challenges & Requirements of Future Internet

  • Architecture of Future Internet

  • Management Issues of Future Internet

    • Management Requirements

    • Management Operations

  • Concluding Remarks

Why future internet

Why Future Internet?

  • A growing and changing demand

    • For increasing user control of contents/services

    • For interconnecting ‘things’-TV/PC/phone/sensor…

    • For convergence: networks/devices/services (video/audio/data/voice)

    • Mobility

    • Security

  • Current technologies can be, and need to be improved significantly

    • For scaling up and more flexibility

    • For better security

    • For higher performance and more functionality

What is future internet 1

What is Future Internet? (1)

  • Need to resolve the challenges facing today’s Internet by rethinking the fundamental assumptions and design decisions underlying its current architecture

  • Two principal ways in which to evolve or change a system

    • Evolutionary approach (Incremental)

      • A system is moved from one state to another with incremental patches

    • Revolutionary approach (Clean-slate)

      • The system is redesigned from scratch to offer improved abstractions and/or performance, while providing similar functionality based on new core principles

  • It is time to explore a clean-slate approach

    • In the past 30 years, the Internet has been very successful using an incremental approach

    • Reaching a point where people are unwilling or unable to experiment on the current architecture

What is future internet 2

What is Future Internet? (2)

  • Future Internet?

    • Clean Slate design of the Internet’s architecture to satisfy the growing demands

    • Management issues of Future Internet also need to be considered from the stage of design

  • Research Goal for Future Internet

    • Performing research for Future Internet and designing new network architectures

    • Building an experimental facility

History of internet growth 1

History of Internet Growth (1)

  • Stage One: Research and Academic Focus (1980-1991)

    • Debate about which protocols will be used (TCP/IP)

    • The National Science Foundation (NSF) took a leading role in research networking

      • NSFNet1: “supercomputer net”

      • NSFNet2: a generalized Internet (thousands of Internet nodes on U.S campus)

    • The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created open standards for the use of the Internet

      • Request for Comments (RFC) standards documents

History of internet growth 2

History of Internet Growth (2)

  • Stage Two: Early Public Internet (1992-1997)

    • Federal Networking Council (FNC) made a decision to allow ISP to interconnect with federally supported Internets

    • The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) adopted Tim Berners-Lee’s work on the World Wide Web

    • Mosaic, Netscape started us down the path to the browser environment today

      • It was watershed development that shifted the Internet from a command-line, e-mail, and file-transfer kind of user interface to the browser world of full-screen applications

    • In the fall of 1996, a group of more than thirty University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID)

      • Subsequently become known as Internet2

History of internet growth 3

History of Internet Growth (3)

  • Stage Three: International Public Internet (1998-2005)

    • The Internet achieved both domestic and international critical mass of growth

    • Fueled by giant bubble in Internet stocks that peaked in 2000 and then collapsed

    • Fiber-optic bandwidth Improvements to gigabit-per-second levels, and price-performance improvements in personal computers

    • The “bubble” years laid the foundation for broadband Internet applications and integration of voice, data, and video services on one network base

    • In 1996, a group of more than thirty universities formed the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID)-became known as Internet2

History of internet growth 4

History of Internet Growth (4)

  • Stage Four: Challenges for the Future Internet (2006-?)

    • The Internet has become a maturing, worldwide, universal network

    • Currently debated policy issues: net neutrality

      • Two of the few surviving U.S. telcos intended to levy special surcharges on broadband Internet traffic based on the application and on the company

      • Millions of Internet users

        • Growth in functionality and value of the net could never happened if there had been discrimination in managing packet flow

    • If the telco’s well funded campaign succeeds

      • Then Progress toward universal and affordable broadband access will be further delayed

Merits demerits of current internet

Merits & Demerits of Current Internet

  • Merits

    • The original Internet design goal of robustness

      • Network architecture must not mandate recovery from multiple failures, but provide the service for those users who require it

    • Openness: low barrier to entry, freedom of expression, and ubiquitous access

  • Demerits

    • “Nothing wrong – just not enough right”

    • Pervasive and diversified nature of network applications require many functionalities

      • Current network architecture doesn’t support

    • E.g., TCP variants for high bandwidth delay product networks [1], earlier work on TCP over wireless networks [2], and current effort towards cross-layer optimization [3]

Research institute for future internet

Research Institute for Future Internet

  • US NSF

    • Future Internet Design (FIND)

    • Global Environment for Networking Innovations (GENI)

  • European Commission

    • Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE)

    • EIFFEL’s Future Internet Initiative

    • EuroNGI & EuroFGI


    • NICT’s NeW Generation Network (NWGN)

    • Japan Gigabit Network II (JGN2)


    • Future Internet Forum (FIF)

Research roadmaps of future internet

Research Roadmaps of Future Internet

  • Roadmaps of Future Internet in EU, US and JAPAN

Challenges of the internet

Challenges of the Internet

  • Security

    • Worrisome to everyone (user, application developers, operators)

  • Mobility

    • Little support for mobile applications and services

  • Reliability and Availability

    • ISPs face the task of providing a service which meets user expectations

  • Problem analysis

    • Toolset for debugging the Internet is limited

  • Scalability

    • E.g., routing system

  • Quality of Service

    • It is unclear how and where to integrate different levels of QoS

  • Economics

    • How network and service operators continue to make a profit

Requirements of future internet

Requirements of Future Internet

  • Highly available information delivery

  • Verifiably secure information delivery

  • Support for mobility

  • Interworking flexibility and extensibility

  • Support for a scalable, unified network

  • Explicit facilitation of cross-layer interactions

  • Distribution of data and control



  • Keywords

    • Virtualization

      • Virtualize network resources and provide customer-specific services

    • Service-oriented architecture (SOA)

      • Define layer’s functions as services and converge the services to support the network operations

      • Register services, discover services in repository and acquire necessary services

    • Cross-layer design

      • Divide network layers and support a cross-layer mechanism

Virtualization geni


Resource Controller

Slice Coordination




Virtualization SW

Virtualization SW

Virtualization SW

Substrate HW

Substrate HW

Substrate HW

Virtualization - GENI

  • Virtualize network resources and provide customer-specific services

Soa 1 find s silos


  • Define layer’s functions as services and converge the services to support the network operations

Soa 2





Service Repository

1. Publish

2. Find

Service Provider


Service Requester


3. Interact



3.1 Invoke

3.2 Receive



3.3 Reply

SOA (2)

  • Register services, discover services in repository and acquire necessary services

Cross layer design jgn2


Cross-layerControl Mechanism

Overlay Network

(IP + α) NW / Post IP NW

Underlay Network

Photonic NW

Mobile NW

Sensor NW

Cross-Layer Design – JGN2

  • Divide network layers and support a cross-layer mechanism

Integrated architecture

Underlay Network

Photonic NW, Mobile NW, Sensor NW, etc.  Resource Virtualization

Integrated Architecture

End Application (Content)











Overlay Network

User-based QoS

Content-based routing

Application Layer

Cross-layer Control Mechanism

(Control Agent)

Service-Coordination Layer(SOA)

TCP + Service +

Application Layer



In-order delivery

Error detection

Reliable transmission

Transport Layer

Flow control


Layer Functionalities 

Service Definition

IP + α


error detection


IP Layer




Physical +

MAC Layer

Research in management 1

Research in Management (1)

  • Research Efforts in USA

    • Two FIND Projects

    • Towards Complexity-Oblivious Network Management

      • Current management architecture has two fundamental flaws

        • The management plane depends on the data plane

        • The complexity of the ever-evolving data plane disturbs the management plane

      • Propose an architecture that the management plane is irrelevant to the data plane, and all data-plane protocols expose a generic management interface

    • Design for Manageability in the Next Generation Internet

      • Automated management

      • Intrinsic management support

      • Real-time change detection

      • Pervasive data sharing

      • Network management evaluation test-bed and methodology

Research in management 2

Research in Management (2)

  • Research Efforts in Europe

    • EuroNGI WP.JRA.1.5 Network Management: New trends and Architectures

      • Location management

      • Mobility management

      • Management architecture

    • Special Joint Specific Research Project (JRA.S.06): Design and Evaluation of Distributed, Self-Organized QoS Monitoring for Autonomous Network Operation (AutoMon)

      • Specify a distributed, self-organizing and autonomic IP QoS monitoring framework which is based on Distributed Hash Tables

      • Evaluate the performance of the peer-to-peer mechanisms for maintaining the monitoring overlay

    • European network on MANagement solutions for the Internet and Complex Services (EMANICS)

      • Joint Research: Scalable management, Economic management, Autonomic management

Management requirements 1

Management Requirements (1)

  • Information Model

    • Need to define high-level, goal-directed specification of network properties & policies

    • Need to specify the management objects (from HW resources to business goals) and management functionalities

    • Must be extensible

  • Communication Model

    • Basic management operations: get, set, create, add, delete, action, notify

    • Need to define a unified, generic management interface for all data plane protocols  simple, interoperable, and scalable

    • Must be interoperable

Management requirements 2

Management Requirements (2)

  • Functional Model

    • Basic management functionality: FCAPS

    • Management functionalities are also defined as services based on SOA

    • Network nodes such as terminal, intermediate, core need to be programmable

    • Perform management functions operationally independent of data plane

    • Support network discovery and selection

    • Guarantee QoS

    • Support generalized mobility

  • Non-functional Requirements

    • Robustness (primary and backup NMs) = Reliable

    • Scalability

    • Flexibility

    • Interoperability

    • Autonomic (Automatic & Intelligent & Self-*)

Management operations 1

Management Operations (1)

  • Fault Management

    • Various & numerous network devices  scalable fault management solution

    • A possible solution: autonomic (self-detection, self-healing, …)

  • Configuration Management

    • Automatically configured

    • Self bootstrapping without pre-configuration

  • Accounting Management

    • Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA), charging, and billing

  • Performance Management

    • At a lower level: network performance monitoring is required

    • At an upper level: service quality management is required

  • Security Management

    • Ensure the integrity, authenticity, confidentiality of communication with any given peer

Management operations 2

Management Operations (2)

  • Mobility Management

    • Horizontal and vertical handoffs, and roaming

  • Identity & Addressing Management

    • Provide seamless ubiquitous support to various services in a larger service provider environment

  • Terminal Management

    • Terminal location & trace management

  • Service Management

    • Dynamic service registration & fast discovery

  • Resource Virtualization Management

    • Common, well published, interoperable interfaces

    • Easier integration of mgmt interfaces across virtualized resources

    • Abstraction independent of underlying topology

  • Cross-domain Control Management

    • Define cross-domain interfaces

    • Provide management capabilities based on SOA

Concluding remarks

Concluding Remarks

  • Future Internet

    • Clean slate design of Internet architecture considering security, scalability, mobility, robustness, identity, manageability, etc.

  • Summarize current research efforts for Future Internet

  • Summarize challenges & requirements of Future Internet

  • Propose an integrated architecture of Future Internet

  • Propose management requirements & operations of Future Internet

  • Investigate possible research topics towards management of Future Internet

    • In a design phase, we can imagine all possible mechanisms to solve the drawbacks of current Internet

    • How can we validate our proposed architecture and management issues?

    • What topic can we focus on?

Question and discussion

Question and Discussion


Example geni substrate

Example GENI Substrate

Abstractions 1

Abstractions (1)

  • Three major abstractions that the GMC defines

    • Components

    • Slices

    • Aggregates

  • Components

    • A collection of resources

      • Physical resources (e.g., CPU, memory, disk, bandwidth)

      • Logical resources (e.g., file descriptors, port numbers)

    • E.g., Programmable edge node (PEN) (i.e., a conventional compute server), Programmable core node (PCN) (a customizable router, i.e., a backbone router), Programmable access point (PAP) (e.g., for wireless connectivity)

    • Uniquely identified using GGIDs (GENI global identifiers)

      • E.g.,

    • Each component is controlled via a component manager (CM), the entity responsible for allocating resources at a component

  • Sliver

    • A distinct partition of the component’s resources

    • Each component must include HW or SW mechanisms that isolate sliver from each other

    • E.g., virtual server, virtual router, virtual switch, virtual access point

Abstractions 2

Abstractions (2)

  • Slices

    • A distributed, named collection of slivers that collectively provides the execution context for an experiment, service, or network architecture

    • Slices are uniquely identified by GGIDs (GENI global identifiers)

      • E.g.,

  • Aggregates

    • A GMC object representing a group of components, where a given component can belong to zero, one, or more aggregates

      • Example aggregate might correspond to a physical location (components co-located at the same site), a cluster (components that share a physical interconnect), an authority (a group of components managed by a single authority), a network (a group of components that collectively implement a backbone network or a wireless subnet)

    • Researcher portal

      • Coordinate resource allocation

      • Manage set of components

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