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Towards Management of Future Internet. Mi-jung Choi, Sungsu Kim DP&NM Lab. Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering POSTECH, Korea Email : [email protected], [email protected] Outline. Why Future Internet? What is Future Internet? Status of Current Internet

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towards management of future internet

Towards Management of Future Internet

Mi-jung Choi, Sungsu Kim

DP&NM Lab.

Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering


Email : [email protected], [email protected]

  • Why Future Internet?
  • What is Future Internet?
  • Status of Current Internet
    • History of Internet Growth
    • Merits and Demerits of Future Internet
  • Summary of research effort of Future Internet
    • FIND, GENI, FIRE, JGN2, etc.
  • Challenges & Requirements of Future Internet
  • Architecture of Future Internet
  • Management Issues of Future Internet
    • Management Requirements
    • Management Operations
  • Concluding Remarks
why future internet
Why Future Internet?
  • A growing and changing demand
    • For increasing user control of contents/services
    • For interconnecting ‘things’-TV/PC/phone/sensor…
    • For convergence: networks/devices/services (video/audio/data/voice)
    • Mobility
    • Security
  • Current technologies can be, and need to be improved significantly
    • For scaling up and more flexibility
    • For better security
    • For higher performance and more functionality
what is future internet 1
What is Future Internet? (1)
  • Need to resolve the challenges facing today’s Internet by rethinking the fundamental assumptions and design decisions underlying its current architecture
  • Two principal ways in which to evolve or change a system
    • Evolutionary approach (Incremental)
      • A system is moved from one state to another with incremental patches
    • Revolutionary approach (Clean-slate)
      • The system is redesigned from scratch to offer improved abstractions and/or performance, while providing similar functionality based on new core principles
  • It is time to explore a clean-slate approach
    • In the past 30 years, the Internet has been very successful using an incremental approach
    • Reaching a point where people are unwilling or unable to experiment on the current architecture
what is future internet 2
What is Future Internet? (2)
  • Future Internet?
    • Clean Slate design of the Internet’s architecture to satisfy the growing demands
    • Management issues of Future Internet also need to be considered from the stage of design
  • Research Goal for Future Internet
    • Performing research for Future Internet and designing new network architectures
    • Building an experimental facility
history of internet growth 1
History of Internet Growth (1)
  • Stage One: Research and Academic Focus (1980-1991)
    • Debate about which protocols will be used (TCP/IP)
    • The National Science Foundation (NSF) took a leading role in research networking
      • NSFNet1: “supercomputer net”
      • NSFNet2: a generalized Internet (thousands of Internet nodes on U.S campus)
    • The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created open standards for the use of the Internet
      • Request for Comments (RFC) standards documents
history of internet growth 2
History of Internet Growth (2)
  • Stage Two: Early Public Internet (1992-1997)
    • Federal Networking Council (FNC) made a decision to allow ISP to interconnect with federally supported Internets
    • The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) adopted Tim Berners-Lee’s work on the World Wide Web
    • Mosaic, Netscape started us down the path to the browser environment today
      • It was watershed development that shifted the Internet from a command-line, e-mail, and file-transfer kind of user interface to the browser world of full-screen applications
    • In the fall of 1996, a group of more than thirty University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID)
      • Subsequently become known as Internet2
history of internet growth 3
History of Internet Growth (3)
  • Stage Three: International Public Internet (1998-2005)
    • The Internet achieved both domestic and international critical mass of growth
    • Fueled by giant bubble in Internet stocks that peaked in 2000 and then collapsed
    • Fiber-optic bandwidth Improvements to gigabit-per-second levels, and price-performance improvements in personal computers
    • The “bubble” years laid the foundation for broadband Internet applications and integration of voice, data, and video services on one network base
    • In 1996, a group of more than thirty universities formed the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID)-became known as Internet2
history of internet growth 4
History of Internet Growth (4)
  • Stage Four: Challenges for the Future Internet (2006-?)
    • The Internet has become a maturing, worldwide, universal network
    • Currently debated policy issues: net neutrality
      • Two of the few surviving U.S. telcos intended to levy special surcharges on broadband Internet traffic based on the application and on the company
      • Millions of Internet users
        • Growth in functionality and value of the net could never happened if there had been discrimination in managing packet flow
    • If the telco’s well funded campaign succeeds
      • Then Progress toward universal and affordable broadband access will be further delayed
merits demerits of current internet
Merits & Demerits of Current Internet
  • Merits
    • The original Internet design goal of robustness
      • Network architecture must not mandate recovery from multiple failures, but provide the service for those users who require it
    • Openness: low barrier to entry, freedom of expression, and ubiquitous access
  • Demerits
    • “Nothing wrong – just not enough right”
    • Pervasive and diversified nature of network applications require many functionalities
      • Current network architecture doesn’t support
    • E.g., TCP variants for high bandwidth delay product networks [1], earlier work on TCP over wireless networks [2], and current effort towards cross-layer optimization [3]
research institute for future internet
Research Institute for Future Internet
  • US NSF
    • Future Internet Design (FIND)
    • Global Environment for Networking Innovations (GENI)
  • European Commission
    • Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE)
    • EIFFEL’s Future Internet Initiative
    • EuroNGI & EuroFGI
    • NICT’s NeW Generation Network (NWGN)
    • Japan Gigabit Network II (JGN2)
    • Future Internet Forum (FIF)
research roadmaps of future internet
Research Roadmaps of Future Internet
  • Roadmaps of Future Internet in EU, US and JAPAN
challenges of the internet
Challenges of the Internet
  • Security
    • Worrisome to everyone (user, application developers, operators)
  • Mobility
    • Little support for mobile applications and services
  • Reliability and Availability
    • ISPs face the task of providing a service which meets user expectations
  • Problem analysis
    • Toolset for debugging the Internet is limited
  • Scalability
    • E.g., routing system
  • Quality of Service
    • It is unclear how and where to integrate different levels of QoS
  • Economics
    • How network and service operators continue to make a profit
requirements of future internet
Requirements of Future Internet
  • Highly available information delivery
  • Verifiably secure information delivery
  • Support for mobility
  • Interworking flexibility and extensibility
  • Support for a scalable, unified network
  • Explicit facilitation of cross-layer interactions
  • Distribution of data and control
  • Keywords
    • Virtualization
      • Virtualize network resources and provide customer-specific services
    • Service-oriented architecture (SOA)
      • Define layer’s functions as services and converge the services to support the network operations
      • Register services, discover services in repository and acquire necessary services
    • Cross-layer design
      • Divide network layers and support a cross-layer mechanism
virtualization geni


Resource Controller

Slice Coordination




Virtualization SW

Virtualization SW

Virtualization SW

Substrate HW

Substrate HW

Substrate HW

Virtualization - GENI
  • Virtualize network resources and provide customer-specific services
soa 1 find s silos
  • Define layer’s functions as services and converge the services to support the network operations
soa 2





Service Repository

1. Publish

2. Find

Service Provider


Service Requester


3. Interact



3.1 Invoke

3.2 Receive



3.3 Reply

SOA (2)
  • Register services, discover services in repository and acquire necessary services
cross layer design jgn2


Cross-layerControl Mechanism

Overlay Network

(IP + α) NW / Post IP NW

Underlay Network

Photonic NW

Mobile NW

Sensor NW

Cross-Layer Design – JGN2
  • Divide network layers and support a cross-layer mechanism
integrated architecture

Underlay Network

Photonic NW, Mobile NW, Sensor NW, etc.  Resource Virtualization

Integrated Architecture

End Application (Content)











Overlay Network

User-based QoS

Content-based routing

Application Layer

Cross-layer Control Mechanism

(Control Agent)

Service-Coordination Layer(SOA)

TCP + Service +

Application Layer



In-order delivery

Error detection

Reliable transmission

Transport Layer

Flow control


Layer Functionalities 

Service Definition

IP + α


error detection


IP Layer




Physical +

MAC Layer

research in management 1
Research in Management (1)
  • Research Efforts in USA
    • Two FIND Projects
    • Towards Complexity-Oblivious Network Management
      • Current management architecture has two fundamental flaws
        • The management plane depends on the data plane
        • The complexity of the ever-evolving data plane disturbs the management plane
      • Propose an architecture that the management plane is irrelevant to the data plane, and all data-plane protocols expose a generic management interface
    • Design for Manageability in the Next Generation Internet
      • Automated management
      • Intrinsic management support
      • Real-time change detection
      • Pervasive data sharing
      • Network management evaluation test-bed and methodology
research in management 2
Research in Management (2)
  • Research Efforts in Europe
    • EuroNGI WP.JRA.1.5 Network Management: New trends and Architectures
      • Location management
      • Mobility management
      • Management architecture
    • Special Joint Specific Research Project (JRA.S.06): Design and Evaluation of Distributed, Self-Organized QoS Monitoring for Autonomous Network Operation (AutoMon)
      • Specify a distributed, self-organizing and autonomic IP QoS monitoring framework which is based on Distributed Hash Tables
      • Evaluate the performance of the peer-to-peer mechanisms for maintaining the monitoring overlay
    • European network on MANagement solutions for the Internet and Complex Services (EMANICS)
      • Joint Research: Scalable management, Economic management, Autonomic management
management requirements 1
Management Requirements (1)
  • Information Model
    • Need to define high-level, goal-directed specification of network properties & policies
    • Need to specify the management objects (from HW resources to business goals) and management functionalities
    • Must be extensible
  • Communication Model
    • Basic management operations: get, set, create, add, delete, action, notify
    • Need to define a unified, generic management interface for all data plane protocols  simple, interoperable, and scalable
    • Must be interoperable
management requirements 2
Management Requirements (2)
  • Functional Model
    • Basic management functionality: FCAPS
    • Management functionalities are also defined as services based on SOA
    • Network nodes such as terminal, intermediate, core need to be programmable
    • Perform management functions operationally independent of data plane
    • Support network discovery and selection
    • Guarantee QoS
    • Support generalized mobility
  • Non-functional Requirements
    • Robustness (primary and backup NMs) = Reliable
    • Scalability
    • Flexibility
    • Interoperability
    • Autonomic (Automatic & Intelligent & Self-*)
management operations 1
Management Operations (1)
  • Fault Management
    • Various & numerous network devices  scalable fault management solution
    • A possible solution: autonomic (self-detection, self-healing, …)
  • Configuration Management
    • Automatically configured
    • Self bootstrapping without pre-configuration
  • Accounting Management
    • Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA), charging, and billing
  • Performance Management
    • At a lower level: network performance monitoring is required
    • At an upper level: service quality management is required
  • Security Management
    • Ensure the integrity, authenticity, confidentiality of communication with any given peer
management operations 2
Management Operations (2)
  • Mobility Management
    • Horizontal and vertical handoffs, and roaming
  • Identity & Addressing Management
    • Provide seamless ubiquitous support to various services in a larger service provider environment
  • Terminal Management
    • Terminal location & trace management
  • Service Management
    • Dynamic service registration & fast discovery
  • Resource Virtualization Management
    • Common, well published, interoperable interfaces
    • Easier integration of mgmt interfaces across virtualized resources
    • Abstraction independent of underlying topology
  • Cross-domain Control Management
    • Define cross-domain interfaces
    • Provide management capabilities based on SOA
concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks
  • Future Internet
    • Clean slate design of Internet architecture considering security, scalability, mobility, robustness, identity, manageability, etc.
  • Summarize current research efforts for Future Internet
  • Summarize challenges & requirements of Future Internet
  • Propose an integrated architecture of Future Internet
  • Propose management requirements & operations of Future Internet
  • Investigate possible research topics towards management of Future Internet
    • In a design phase, we can imagine all possible mechanisms to solve the drawbacks of current Internet
    • How can we validate our proposed architecture and management issues?
    • What topic can we focus on?
abstractions 1
Abstractions (1)
  • Three major abstractions that the GMC defines
    • Components
    • Slices
    • Aggregates
  • Components
    • A collection of resources
      • Physical resources (e.g., CPU, memory, disk, bandwidth)
      • Logical resources (e.g., file descriptors, port numbers)
    • E.g., Programmable edge node (PEN) (i.e., a conventional compute server), Programmable core node (PCN) (a customizable router, i.e., a backbone router), Programmable access point (PAP) (e.g., for wireless connectivity)
    • Uniquely identified using GGIDs (GENI global identifiers)
      • E.g.,
    • Each component is controlled via a component manager (CM), the entity responsible for allocating resources at a component
  • Sliver
    • A distinct partition of the component’s resources
    • Each component must include HW or SW mechanisms that isolate sliver from each other
    • E.g., virtual server, virtual router, virtual switch, virtual access point
abstractions 2
Abstractions (2)
  • Slices
    • A distributed, named collection of slivers that collectively provides the execution context for an experiment, service, or network architecture
    • Slices are uniquely identified by GGIDs (GENI global identifiers)
      • E.g.,
  • Aggregates
    • A GMC object representing a group of components, where a given component can belong to zero, one, or more aggregates
      • Example aggregate might correspond to a physical location (components co-located at the same site), a cluster (components that share a physical interconnect), an authority (a group of components managed by a single authority), a network (a group of components that collectively implement a backbone network or a wireless subnet)
    • Researcher portal
      • Coordinate resource allocation
      • Manage set of components