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Filling Mars Human Exploration Strategic Knowledge Gaps with Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation. S. Rafkin, Southwest Research Institute ([email protected]) D. Banfield , Cornell University R. Dissly , Ball Aerospace Corporation.

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Filling Mars Human Exploration Strategic Knowledge Gaps with Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

S. Rafkin, Southwest Research Institute

([email protected])

D. Banfield, Cornell University

R. Dissly, Ball Aerospace Corporation

This work has been supported in part by NASA PIDDP NNX12AK49G-S02


MOTIVATION Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

Analysis of Strategic Knowledge Gaps Associated with Potential Human Missions to the Martian System

Precursor Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG)

(jointly sponsored by MEPAG and SBAG)

Review copy released May 31, 2012

Review comments received from MEPAG, CAPTEM, SBAG, from community discussions at the LPI Workshop (June 12-14), and from MPPG (June 21)

Final report June 30, 2012

Recommended bibliographic citation:

  • P-SAG (2012) Analysis of Strategic Knowledge Gaps Associated with Potential Human Missions to the Martian System: Final report of the Precursor Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG), D.W. Beaty and M.H. Carr (co-chairs) + 25 co-authors, sponsored by MEPAG/SBAG, 72 pp., posted July 2012, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) at http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/.


Examples of Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.Atmospheric Gap-Filling Activities

Measurement Priorities

There are other atmospheric GFAs identified in the P-SAG report.


Intent of atmospheric skgs
Intent of Atmospheric SKGs Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

  • Need to characterize the structure and dynamical behavior of the atmosphere.

  • Need to validate models of the atmosphere.

  • Need to improve models of the atmosphere.

  • Need to extrapolate observations to other locations with models.

Rafkin et al.


Why investigate
Why Investigate? Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

Q: What is the density and wind structure at time of landing?

A: I don’t know. Here’s a guess.

Q: What are the error bars?

A: I don’t know. Here’s a guess.

Q: Why don’t you know?

A: Because the proper payloads have not been flown.

Q: So, we’ll have to keep guessing for this and future missions?

A: Yes.

Rafkin et al.


Decision
Decision Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

More of the same will do little to make significant progress on the atmospheric SKGs.

Atmospheric SKG Goals

major?

or

Present state

Incremental?

Knowledge

Humans

on Mars

MSL

Viking

Phoenix

2020

Pathfinder

Time / Surface Experiments

Rafkin et al.


An upward knowledge trajectory forcing mechanisms
An Upward Knowledge Trajectory: Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.Forcing Mechanisms

Change in Internal Energy

=

Temperature

(response)

T-> p -> Winds

Energy In

(forcing)

Energy Out

(forcing)

Infrared

Down

Infrared

Up

Sensible

Heat Flux

Latent

Heat Flux

Solar Down

Regolith

Heat Flux

Rafkin et al.


An upward knowledge trajectory forcing mechanisms1
An Upward Knowledge Trajectory: Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.Forcing Mechanisms

Change in Internal Energy

=

Temperature

(response)

T-> p -> Winds

Energy In

(forcing)

Energy Out

(forcing)

Infrared

Down

Infrared

Up

Sensible

Heat Flux

Latent

Heat Flux

Solar Down

Regolith

Heat Flux

Measuring only T, p, V response provides ambiguous information for reconciling and improving errors in models.

Rafkin et al.


Density errors due to turbulent flux
Density Errors Due to Turbulent Flux Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

Density errors of a few percent are significant for entry, descent and landing.

Rafkin et al.


Density errors due to turbulent flux1
Density Errors Due to Turbulent Flux Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

Density errors of a few percent are significant for entry, descent and landing.

Rafkin et al.


By measuring forcing
By Measuring Forcing: Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

  • Better characterize the structure and dynamical behavior of the atmosphere.

  • Better validate models of the atmosphere.

  • Improve models of the atmosphere.

  • More confidently extrapolate observations to other locations with models.

Rafkin et al.


By measuring forcing1
By Measuring Forcing: Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

  • Better characterize the structure and dynamical behavior of the atmosphere.

  • Better validate models of the atmosphere.

  • Improve models of the atmosphere.

  • More confidently extrapolate observations to other locations with models.

  • Make significant progress on SKGs!

Rafkin et al.


Necessary measurements
Necessary Measurements Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

  • Pressure, temperature, winds (response).

  • Radiative Forcing: solar and infrared .

  • Dust opacity (radiative forcing).

  • Heat and momentum fluxes (turbulent forcing).

Rafkin et al.


Necessary measurements1
Necessary Measurements Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

  • Pressure, temperature, winds (response).

  • Radiative Forcing: solar and infrared .

  • Dust opacity (radiative forcing).

  • Heat and momentum fluxes (turbulent forcing).

Flight Heritage

Rafkin et al.


Measuring fluxes sonic anemometer tunable diode laser
Measuring Fluxes Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.Sonic Anemometer + Tunable Diode Laser

Earth

Mars field

prototype

Mars environmental testing in early Fall.

(TRL-6).

Mars flight

engineering

model

CBE Resources

0.3 kg sensor

2 kg electronics

4 W

Rafkin et al.


Fluxes
Fluxes Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

Sensible Heat Flux =

Latent Heat Flux =

Momentum Flux =

All depend on composition, which varies for Mars. Density from T and p. T from speed of sound, which depends on composition.

Measuring 3-D winds, Cs, p, and composition provides a closed system of equations.

Measurements must be colocated and measured at high frequency (>10 Hz) due to small size of eddies near the ground.

Rafkin et al.


Accommodation
Accommodation Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

  • A perfect instrument poorly accommodated makes a poor experiment.

  • Must ensure proper accommodation.

  • Must minimize spacecraft contamination:

    • Mechanical

    • Thermal

  • Extended booms are the most likely solution.

Want to measure this,

not this.

Rafkin et al.


Summary
Summary Next Generation Meteorological Instrumentation.

  • New measurements with proper instrument accommodation are needed to achieve many atmospheric SKGs.

  • Previous instrumentation and methods are insufficient.

  • Cannot be done exclusively from orbit.

  • Quantify forcingand response.

  • Turbulent fluxes are a key forcing mechanism.

  • Simultaneously measuring p, T, V, bulk composition, and solar and IR fluxes provides an energy closure experiment.

  • Atmospheric state must be measured at >10 Hz.

  • Most instrumentation is high heritage and low resource.

  • Combined sonic anemometer and tunable diode laser at TRL-6 this Fall.

Rafkin et al.


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