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Chapter 3. Chemical Compounds. Types of Compounds. Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon Organic Compounds – contain carbon. Inorganic Compounds. Ionic compound combination of metals and nonmetals made up of positive and negative ions joined together by electrostatic

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chemical Compounds

types of compounds
Types of Compounds
  • Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon
  • Organic Compounds – contain carbon

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inorganic compounds
Inorganic Compounds
  • Ionic compound

combination of metals and nonmetals

made up of positive and negative ions

joined together by electrostatic

forces

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slide4
Ions
  • Ions are atoms that have either lost or gained electrons.
  • Electrons are lost from the outermost energy level (discussed later in textbook)
  • Ions that have more protons than electrons are positively charged
  • Ions that have more electrons than protons are negatively charged

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monatomic ions
Monatomic Ions
  • Formed from a single atom
  • Example:
      • Sodium Na+
      • Sulfur s6+ or S2-

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monatomic ions1
Monatomic ions
  • Ions formed from a single atom
  • Atom = Na Ion = Na+
  • Atom = O Ion = O2-

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using your periodic table
Using your periodic table
  • The number of the main group elements will be used to determine the oxidation states.
  • Groups IA, IIA, IIIA = +, 2+, 3+
  • Group VA = 5+, 3-
  • Group VIA = 6+, 2-
  • Group VIIA = 7+, -

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alkali metals group ia
Alkali Metals (Group IA)
  • The oxidation number of alkali metals in a compound is always 1+.

Never write the number 1 for anything in chemistry. It is understood.

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alkaline earth metals group iia
Alkaline Earth Metals (Group IIA)
  • The oxidation number of alkaline earth metals in a compound is always 2+.

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nitrogen family group va
Nitrogen Family (Group VA)
  • Nitrides, phosphides, and arsenides are always 3- in binary salts.

N3- P3- As3-

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oxygen family group via
Oxygen Family (Group VIA)
  • The oxidation number of oxygen is almost always 2- in a compound. There are exceptions.

a) Peroxides, O22- (each oxygen is 1-)

[Formed with elements in Groups IA and IIA]

b) Superoxides, O2- (each oxygen is ½-)

K, Rb and Ce are the only elements that form

Superoxides.

  • Sulfide, selenide, telluride, and polonide are always 2- in binary salts. (S2-, Se2-, Te2-, Po2-)

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the halogens group viia
The Halogens (Group VIIA)
  • In metallic halides the halogen (F, Cl, Br, I, At) always has an oxidation number equal to 1-.
  • Remember: Never write the number 1.

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balancing using oxidation number
Balancing Using Oxidation Number
  • The oxidation number of any element in its free state (uncombined with other elements) is 0.

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ionic compounds
Ionic Compounds
  • Ionic compounds consists of a metallic ion and a non-metallic ion.
  • Positive ion is the cation
  • Negative ion is the anion.

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chemical formula indicates
Chemical Formula indicates
  • The elements present
  • The relative number of atoms of each element in the compound

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binary compounds
Binary Compounds
  • Binary compounds are made of two different element.

-Combined chemically

-Definite proportion by mass

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balancing binary compounds
Balancing Binary Compounds
  • Step I: Write the symbols for each ion
  • Example: Na Cl
  • Step II: Assign an oxidation number
          • Na+ Cl- Al3+ S2-
  • Step III: Balance the compound. The sum of

the oxidation numbers must be

zero. (Hint: Crisscross the charges. Don’t

include the signs.)

NaCl Al2S3

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balancing binary compounds1
Balancing Binary Compounds
  • What should you do if the charges are the same?
  • Nothing. The formula is balanced. The sum of the charges is “0”.
  • Example: Ba 2+ O2- = BaO

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balancing binary formulas
Balancing Binary Formulas
  • Silver & chlorine
  • Zinc & oxygen
  • Calcium & bromine
  • Strontium & fluorine
  • Barium & chlorine
  • Calcium & chlorine

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balancing binary formulas1
Balancing Binary Formulas
  • Silver & chlorine AgCl
  • Zinc & oxygen ZnO
  • Calcium & bromine CaBr2
  • Strontium & fluorine SrF2
  • Barium & chlorine BaCl2
  • Calcium & chlorine CaCl2

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naming binary compounds
Naming Binary Compounds

1. Write a balanced formula

2. Write the name of the 1st ion with no

changes.

3. Change the ending on the 2nd ion to –ide.

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naming binary compounds1
Naming Binary Compounds

Example

NaCl = sodium chloride

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naming binary compounds2
Naming Binary Compounds
  • Silver & chlorine
  • Zinc & oxygen
  • Calcium & bromine
  • Strontium & fluorine
  • Barium & chlorine
  • Calcium & chlorine

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naming binary compounds3
Naming Binary Compounds
  • Silver & chlorine silver chloride
  • Zinc & oxygen zinc oxide
  • Calcium & bromine calcium bromide
  • Strontium & fluorine strontium fluoride
  • Barium & chlorine barium chloride
  • Calcium & chlorine calcium chloride

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transitional ions and charges
Transitional Ions and Charges
  • Fe2+ Iron (II) Ni 2+ Au+
  • Fe3+ Iron (III) Ni 3+ Au 3+
  • Sn2+ Tin (II) Zn 2+ Ag+1
  • Sn4+ Tin (IV)
  • Cu+1 Copper (I) Pb 2+ Mn+2, +3, +4,+6,+7
  • Cu+2 Copper (II) Pb 4+
  • Co +2
  • Co +3

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naming transitional binary compounds
Naming Transitional Binary Compounds
  • Fe2+ Iron (II) FeCl2 = iron (II) chloride
  • Fe3+ Iron (III)
  • Sn2+ Tin (II) SnCl2 = tin (II) chloride
  • Sn4+ Tin (IV)
  • Cu+1 Copper (I) CuCl = copper (I) chloride
  • Cu+2 Copper (II)

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polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions

Polyatomic ions consist of two or more ions that act as one in a chemical reaction.

Examples:

NO3- nitrate PO43- phosphate

SO42- sulfate NO2- nitrite

SO32- sulfite OH- hydroxide

ClO3- chlorate MnO4- permanganate

C2H3O2- acetate NH4+ ammonium

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ternary compounds
Ternary Compounds
  • Ternary compounds are made up of three ions. Two of the ions are joined together and act as one. (polyatomic ion)
  • Example: NaNO3

Na = sodium N = nitrogen O = oxygen

N & O make up the nitrate ion, NO3-

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naming ternary compounds
Naming Ternary Compounds

1. Write a balanced formula

2. Write the name of the 1st ion. No changes to

name.

3. Write the name of the polyatomic ion.

NaNO3 = sodium nitrate

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formula and name of ternary compounds
Formula and Name of Ternary Compounds
  • MgCO3 magnesium carbonate
  • Pb(NO3)2 lead nitrate
  • Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide
  • Ba(NO3)2 barium nitrate
  • Fe2(SO4)3 iron (III) sulfate
  • LiC2H3O2 lithium acetate
  • KClO3 potassium chlorate
  • (NH4)2SO4 ammonium sulfate

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organic compounds
Organic Compounds
  • Molecular compound
    • Made up of a small number of different

non-metal atoms

    • Held together by forces known as

covalent bonds

The chemical formula gives you the number of atoms of each element contained in a single molecule of the compound

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organic compounds prefixes
Organic CompoundsPrefixes

Number Prefix

1 mono-

2 di-/bi

3 tri-

4 tetra-

5 penta-

6 hexa-

7 hepta-

8 octa-

9 nona-

10 deca-

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organic compounds1
Organic Compounds
  • Carbon dioxide CO2
  • Nitrogen trioxide NO3
  • Dinitrogen trioxide N2O3

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nomenclature review wkst
Nomenclature Review Wkst.
  • 1. calcium chloride 1. NaCl
  • 2. magnesium oxide 2. MgCl2
  • 3. iron (III) hydroxide 3. BaF2
  • 4. potassium sulfate 4. KNO3
  • 5. cesium nitrate 5. Al2S3

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nomenclature review
Nomenclature Review
  • 6. rubidium selenide 6. Li2O
  • 7. strontium phosphate 7. SrSO4
  • 8. potassium oxide 8. CuCl2
  • 9. copper (I) oxide 9. (NH4)3PO4
  • 10. ammonium sulfafte 10. BeBr2

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nomenclature review1
Nomenclature Review
  • 11. sodium sulfide 11. H2SO4
  • 12. rubidium sulfate 12. Mg3(PO4)2
  • 13. calcium hydroxide 13. Na3PO4
  • 14. sodium iodide 14. (NH4)2O
  • 15. potassium hydroxide 15. AuCl3

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nomenclature review2
Nomenclature Review
  • 16. lead (II) sulfide 16. Na2CO3
  • 17. sodium carbonate 17. SiO2
  • 18. iron (III) chloride 18. PbS
  • 19. phosphoric acid 19. N2O3
  • 20. barium sulfate 20. HNO3
  • 21. silver nitrate 21. CaBr2

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naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • 1. sodium carbonate 129.0 g/mol
  • 2. sodium hydroxide 40.00 g/mol
  • 3. magnesium bromide 184.1 g/mol
  • 4. potassium chloride 74.6 g/mol
  • 5. iron (II) chloride 126.8 g/mol

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naming ionic compounds1
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • 6. iron (III) chloride 162.3 g/mol
  • 7. zinc hydroxide 99.4 g/mol
  • 8. beryllium sulfate 114.1 g/mol
  • 9. chromium (II) fluoride 90.0 g/mol
  • 10. aluminum sulfide 150 g/mol

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naming ionic compounds2
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • 11. lead (II) oxide 223.2 g/mol
  • 12. lithium phosphate 115.7 g/mol
  • 13. titanium (IV) iodide 556.3 g/mol
  • 14. cobalt (II) nitride 204.7 g/mol
  • 15. magnesium phosphide 134.9 g/mol

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naming ionic compounds3
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • 16. gallium nitrite 207.7 g/mol
  • 17. silver sulfite 296 g/mol
  • 18. ammonium hydroxide 35.0 g/mol
  • 19. aluminum cyanide 105.0 g/mol
  • 20. beryllium acetate 127.0 g/mol

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polyatomic ions1
Polyatomic Ions
  • Don’t separate the elements in the ion. Keep them together.
  • Don’t: N + O3
  • But NO3-

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determining the charge on a polyatomic ion
Determining the Charge on a Polyatomic Ion
  • (NO3)- (N5+ O36-)-

(SO4)2-(S6+ O48-)2-

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determine the oxidation number of the ions in the polyatomic ions below
Determine the oxidation number of the ions in the polyatomic ions below
  • Phosphate
  • Chlorate
  • Sulfite
  • Permanganate
  • Nitrite
  • Hyroxide

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oxidation states of elements in polyatomic ions
Oxidation States of Elements in Polyatomic Ions
  • Phosphate (P5+ O48-) 3-
  • Chlorate (Cl5+ O36-) –
  • Sulfite (S4+O36- ) 2-
  • Hydroxide (O2-, H+)-

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oxidation states of elements in polyatomic ions1
Oxidation States of Elements in Polyatomic Ions
  • Permanganate (Mn 7+ O42-) -
  • Nitrite (N 5+ O24-) –
  • Acetate (C26+H33-O24-) –

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what are the oxidation states of the atoms below
What are the oxidation states of the atoms below?
  • Sodium chlorine
  • Magnesium oxygen
  • Barium sulfur
  • Potassium fluoride
  • Aluminum bromine
  • Calcium iodine

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metallic elements with variable oxidation numbers
Metallic Elements With Variable Oxidation Numbers
  • Transition metals, representative metals with p and d sublevels, and the inner transition metals typically have more than one oxidation state in compounds..
  • Electrons are lost in the following order: p,s,d

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all other oxidation numbers
All Other Oxidation Numbers
  • Assigned so that the sum of the oxidation numbers of each element equals the net charge on the molecule or polyatomic ion.
  • In neutral compounds, the sum of the positive and negative charge must equal 0.

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polyatomic elements
Polyatomic Elements
  • These elements exist as neutral molecules in nature.

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naming binary compounds table in packet
Naming Binary Compounds (Table in Packet)
  • Sodium & chlorine
  • Magnesium & oxygen
  • Lithium & fluorine
  • Iron & sulfur
  • Copper (II) & chlorine
  • Lead (II) & chlorine
  • Barium & oxygen
  • Calcium & hydrogen

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naming binary compounds table in packet1
Naming Binary Compounds (Table in Packet)
  • NaCl sodium chloride
  • MgO magnesium oxide
  • LiF lithium fluoride
  • FeS iron (II) sulfide
  • CuCl2 copper (II) chloride
  • PbCl2 iron (II) chloride
  • AlCl3 aluminum chloride
  • BaO barium oxide
  • CaH2 calcium hydride

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isoelectronic
Isoelectronic?
  • These elements are not isoelectronic with a noble gas when the outermost electrons are lost.
  • That is, they will not have the same number of electrons as the noble gas before it them in the periodic table.

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experiment water of hydration
EXPERIMENT: WATER OF HYDRATION
  • Purpose:
  • Determine that all the water has been driven from a hydrate by heating a sample to constant mass.
  • Use experimental data to calculate the moles of water released by a hydrate
  • Infer the empirical formula of the hydrate from the formula of the anhydrous compound and experimental data.

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common oxidation numbers for monatomic ions
Common Oxidation Numbers for Monatomic Ions
  • Na + = sodium Cl- = chloride
  • Mg2+ = magnesium S2- = sulfide
  • Ba2+ = barium O2- = oxygen
  • K + = potassium F- = fluoride
  • Al3+ = aluminum Br- = bromide
  • Sr2+ = strontium I- = iodide
  • Ca2+ = calcium

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introduction
Introduction
  • Many ionic compounds, when crystallized from an aqueous solution, will take up definite amounts of water as an integral part of their crystal structure. This water of crystallization may be driven off by heating the hydrated substance to convert it to its anhydrous form.

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safety
SAFETY
  • Handle the crucible and cover with clean crucible tongs only.
  • Heat objects can be hot enough to burn even if they look cool.
  • Always use crucible tongs to handle crucibles and covers.

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procedures
Procedures
  • 1. Mass the crucible and cover. Record
  • 2. Add the magnesium sulfate to the crucible.
  • 3. Mass the crucible, cover and magnesium sulfate. Record
  • 4. Place the crucible and cover on the triangle as demonstrated.
  • 5. Heat slowly for 3 min with the crucible partially covered.
  • 6. Heat strongly for 10 min.
  • 7. Remove crucible, cover and contents and let cool for 5 minutes.
  • 8. Mass the crucible, cover and magnesium sulfate.
  • 9. Heat strongly for 5 minutes.
  • 10. Repeat #7 & 8.

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cleanup disposal
CLEANUP & DISPOSAL
  • Clean all apparatus and your lab station.
  • Return equipment to its proper place.
  • Dispose of the magnesium sulfate in the sink. Flush with water.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly after all work is finished and before you leave the lab.

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data table
DATA TABLE
  • 1. Mass of empty crucible and cover
  • 2. Mass of crucible, cover and magnesium

sulfate hydrate

  • 3. Mass of crucible, cover and anhydrous

magnesium sulfate after 1st heating

  • 4. Mass of crucible, cover and anhydrous

magnesium sulfate after 2nd heating.

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fundamentals of chemistry homework p 114 115 6 10
Fundamentals of ChemistryHomework: P. 114 – 115: 6 - 10
  • 6. How many valence electrons are in an atom of each of the following elements?
  • A) Ne = 8 E) Na = 1
  • B) Br = 7 F) As = 5
  • C) S = 6 G) Sn = 4
  • D) Sr = 2 H) In = 3

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fc question 7
FC : Question # 7
  • Classify each of the elements in question 6 as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.
  • A) Ne = nonmetal E) Na = metal
  • B) Br = nonmetal F) As = metalloid
  • C) S = nonmetal G) Sn = metal
  • D) Sr = metal H) In = metal

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fc question 8
FC : Question # 8

Write the electron dot structure for each of the following elements. What is the group number of each element?

  • A) Cl = 7A or 17 E) Kr = 8A or 18
  • B) Mg = 2A F) Cs = 1A
  • C) C = 4 A or 14 G) O = 6A or 16
  • D) Bi = 6A or 15 H) P = 5A or 15

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lewis structure
Lewis Structure

Lewis structure is just the symbol of the

element and the number of

electrons on the outermost energy level.

Example: sodium Na has one electron

On its outermost energy level. Thus

Na•

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fc question 9
FC : Question # 9
  • The electron dot structures of four elements are shown. Without referring to the periodic table, give the family name for each element.
  • A) iodine = halogen
  • B) barium = alkaline earth metal
  • C) rubidium = alkali metal
  • D) radon = noble gas

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fc question 10
FC : Question # 10
  • a) Find the synthetic elements on the
  • periodic table. b) What are the atomic numbers? c) Which synthetic elements are not found with

the others on the periodic table?

  • B) Elements that are 93 and higher are synthetic elements.
  • C) Technetium (43) and promethium (61).

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fc hwk p 115 11 15
FC: Hwk.: P. 115 ( 11 – 15)
  • List the elements along with their chemical symbols and atomic numbers that have names similar to the names of planets in the solar system.
  • Mercury = Hg (80)
  • Uranium = U (92)
  • Neptunium = Np (93)
  • Plutonium = Pu (94)

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slide75
12. Rb – Atomic mass (86.1 u)
  • K – density, 1.19 g/ml
  • Cs – melting point, 290 K

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slide76
13. Be and Sr
  • F and I

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slide77
14. Element (a) (b) (c) (d)
  • hydrogen 1,1 nm g H(1 dot)
  • lithium 2,1 m s Li (1 dot)
  • nitrogen 2,15 nm g N (5 dots)
  • fluorine 2,17 nm g F (7 dots)
  • cobalt 4,9 m s
  • silver 5,11 m s
  • iodine 5,17 nm s I(7dots)
  • mercury 6,12 m l

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slide79
16. Electrical conductivity increases because the outer level electrons are farther from the nucleus and can move more freely

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naming ternary compounds table in packet
Naming Ternary CompoundsTable in Packet
  • Iron (II) sulfite
  • Copper (II) nitrate)
  • Calcium permanganate
  • Silver nitrate
  • Potassium chlorate
  • Magnesium carbonate
  • Lead (II) hydroxide
  • Nickel (II) phosphate
  • Ammonium sulfite

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slide81
17. Bromine and mercury are liquids.
  • Mercury is a metal because it has two valence electrons that are not tightly held.
  • Bromine is a nonmetal because it has seven valence electrons that are tightly held.

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slide83
19. As you move down a column, the atomic number increases and the wavelength of the mitted X ray decreases.

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question for today put in cw hw notebook ionic or molecular compounds
Question For Today(Put in Cw/Hw Notebook)Ionic or Molecular Compounds?
  • 1. sodium chloride NaCl
  • 2. barium oxide BaO
  • 3. carbon monoxide CO
  • 4. carbon dioxide CO2
  • 5. calcium carbonate CaCO3
  • 6. sulfur dioxide SO2
  • 7. sodium nitrate NaNO3

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