Understanding rna
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Understanding RNA. R ibo n ucleic A cid. A. Sugar ( ribose ). B. Phosphate Group. 1 . Made of Nucleotides:. C. Nitrogen Bases. B. A. C. A.     Cytosine Guanine (C G). B.     Adenine Uracil (A U).

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Understanding RNA

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Understanding RNA

Ribonucleic

Acid


A. Sugar (ribose)

B. Phosphate Group

1. Made of Nucleotides:

C. Nitrogen Bases

B

A

C


A.     Cytosine Guanine

(C G)

B.     Adenine Uracil

(A U)

Notice that RNA has Uracil (not thymine)

2. Rules for Base Pairing:


3. What is the function

of RNA?

* helps to make protein

4. Types of RNA

A. Messenger (mRNA)

B. Transfer (tRNA)

C. Ribosomal (rRNA)


Nitrogen Base

Sugar

(ribose)

Phosphate Group


Comparing DNA & RNA


Comparing DNA & RNA


Comparing DNA & RNA


Comparing DNA & RNA


Protein Synthesis:

How Proteins are Made


Making Proteins is a Two Step Process:


Step 1:

Transcription– making a mRNA copy of DNA; occurs in the nucleus


Why Transcription?

Don’t Write This Slide, Just Read!!!

  • DNA contains volumes of information about making protein.

  • Unfortunately, DNA is too huge to leave the nucleus but the protein is made in the ribosomes.


  • The DNA molecule unzips

at the nitrogen bases

  • mRNA nucleotides pair up

with DNA nucleotides

(one side)

Summary of Transcription


Summary of Transcription

C. DNA “rezips” and mRNA

leaves the nucleus

Click Here for Transcription Animation


Step 2:

Translation – amino acids are being assembled into proteins; occurs in the ribosomes


B. 3 mRNA nucleotides

(codons) pair up with 3 tRNA

nucleotides (anticodons)

C. amino acids are added until

the “stop” message is reached

Summary of Translation

A. mRNA enters the ribosome


Click Here for Translation Animation


* 1 codon makes 1 amino acid;

3 nitrogen bases makes

1 amino acid

* Codon – three mRNA bases

* Anticodon – three tRNA bases


Example:

DNA:

DNA: TAC – AGG – GGT - ACG – CCG – AAT – GGG – ATT –

AUG

– UCC

– CCA

– UGC

– GGC

– UUA

– CCC

– UAA -

mRNA:

tRNA:

Amino

Acid:


Example:

DNA: GCA – AAT- TTA

mRNA:

CGU

– UUA

- AAU

tRNA:

Amino

Acid:


Example:

DNA: TAC – AGG – GGT - ACG – CCG – AAT – GGG – ATT –

mRNA: AUG – UCC – CCA – UGC – GGC – UUA – CCC – UAA -

UAC

– AGG

– GGU

– ACG

– CCG

– AAU

– GGG

– AUU -

tRNA:

Amino

Acid:


Example:

DNA: GCA – AAT- TTA

mRNA: CGU – UUA - AAU

tRNA:

GCA

– AAU

- UUA

Amino

Acid:


Write this on the bottom of your “Chart of Amino Acids”:

Use mRNA to find the Amino Acid on the Chart


U

C

A

G

U

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine

Leucine

Leucine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Tyrosine

Tyrosine

Stop

Stop

Cysteine

Cysteine

Stop

Tryptophan

U

C

A

G

Second mRNA Base

C

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Proline

Proline

Proline

Proline

Histidine

Histidine

Glutamine

Glutamine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

First

mRNA

Base

Third

mRNA

Base

A

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Methionine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Asparagine

Asparagine

Lysine

Lysine

Serine

Serine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

G

Valine

Valine

Valine

Valine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Aspartic Acid

Aspartic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

UCAG


Amino

Acid:

Example:

DNA: TAC – AGG – GGT - ACG – CCG – AAT – GGG – ATT –

mRNA: AUG – UCC – CCA – UGC – GGC – UUA – CCC – UAA -

tRNA:UAC – AGG – GGU – ACG – CCG – AAU – GGG – AUU -

- STOP

– Pro

Met

– Gly

– Leu

– Ser

– Cys

– Pro


Anticodon

Codon


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