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Understanding RNA. R ibo n ucleic A cid. A. Sugar ( ribose ). B. Phosphate Group. 1 . Made of Nucleotides:. C. Nitrogen Bases. B. A. C. A.     Cytosine Guanine (C G). B.     Adenine Uracil (A U).

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Understanding rna
Understanding RNA

Ribonucleic

Acid


A. Sugar (ribose)

B. Phosphate Group

1. Made of Nucleotides:

C. Nitrogen Bases

B

A

C


2 rules for base pairing

A.     Cytosine Guanine

(C G)

B.     Adenine Uracil

(A U)

Notice that RNA has Uracil (not thymine)

2. Rules for Base Pairing:


3. What is the function

of RNA?

* helps to make protein

4. Types of RNA

A. Messenger (mRNA)

B. Transfer (tRNA)

C. Ribosomal (rRNA)


Nitrogen Base

Sugar

(ribose)

Phosphate Group


Comparing dna rna

Comparing DNA & RNA


Comparing dna rna1

Comparing DNA & RNA


Comparing dna rna2

Comparing DNA & RNA


Comparing dna rna3

Comparing DNA & RNA


Protein Synthesis:

How Proteins are Made



Step 1:

Transcription– making a mRNA copy of DNA; occurs in the nucleus


Why transcription
Why Transcription?

Don’t Write This Slide, Just Read!!!

  • DNA contains volumes of information about making protein.

  • Unfortunately, DNA is too huge to leave the nucleus but the protein is made in the ribosomes.


Summary of transcription

at the nitrogen bases

  • mRNA nucleotides pair up

with DNA nucleotides

(one side)

Summary of Transcription


Summary of transcription1
Summary of Transcription

C. DNA “rezips” and mRNA

leaves the nucleus

Click Here for Transcription Animation


Step 2:

Translation – amino acids are being assembled into proteins; occurs in the ribosomes


Summary of translation

B. 3 mRNA nucleotides

(codons) pair up with 3 tRNA

nucleotides (anticodons)

C. amino acids are added until

the “stop” message is reached

Summary of Translation

A. mRNA enters the ribosome



* 1 codon makes 1 amino acid;

3 nitrogen bases makes

1 amino acid

* Codon – three mRNA bases

* Anticodon – three tRNA bases


Example
Example:

DNA:

DNA: TAC – AGG – GGT - ACG – CCG – AAT – GGG – ATT –

AUG

– UCC

– CCA

– UGC

– GGC

– UUA

– CCC

– UAA -

mRNA:

tRNA:

Amino

Acid:


Example1
Example:

DNA: GCA – AAT- TTA

mRNA:

CGU

– UUA

- AAU

tRNA:

Amino

Acid:


Example2
Example:

DNA: TAC – AGG – GGT - ACG – CCG – AAT – GGG – ATT –

mRNA: AUG – UCC – CCA – UGC – GGC – UUA – CCC – UAA -

UAC

– AGG

– GGU

– ACG

– CCG

– AAU

– GGG

– AUU -

tRNA:

Amino

Acid:


Example3
Example:

DNA: GCA – AAT- TTA

mRNA: CGU – UUA - AAU

tRNA:

GCA

– AAU

- UUA

Amino

Acid:


Write this on the bottom of your “Chart of Amino Acids”:

Use mRNA to find the Amino Acid on the Chart


U

C

A

G

U

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine

Leucine

Leucine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Tyrosine

Tyrosine

Stop

Stop

Cysteine

Cysteine

Stop

Tryptophan

U

C

A

G

Second mRNA Base

C

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Proline

Proline

Proline

Proline

Histidine

Histidine

Glutamine

Glutamine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

First

mRNA

Base

Third

mRNA

Base

A

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Methionine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Asparagine

Asparagine

Lysine

Lysine

Serine

Serine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

G

Valine

Valine

Valine

Valine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Aspartic Acid

Aspartic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

UCAG


Example4

Amino

Acid:

Example:

DNA: TAC – AGG – GGT - ACG – CCG – AAT – GGG – ATT –

mRNA: AUG – UCC – CCA – UGC – GGC – UUA – CCC – UAA -

tRNA:UAC – AGG – GGU – ACG – CCG – AAU – GGG – AUU -

- STOP

– Pro

Met

– Gly

– Leu

– Ser

– Cys

– Pro


Anticodon

Codon


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