Cgs 3763 operating systems concepts spring 2013
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CGS 3763 Operating Systems Concepts Spring 2013. Dan C. Marinescu Office: HEC 304 Office hours: M- Wd 11:30 - 12:30 A M. Last time: Answers to student questions Page replacement algorithms Today Page replacement algorithms Implementation of paging

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CGS 3763 Operating Systems Concepts Spring 2013

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Cgs 3763 operating systems concepts spring 2013

CGS 3763 Operating Systems Concepts Spring 2013

Dan C. Marinescu

Office: HEC 304

Office hours: M-Wd 11:30 - 12:30 AM


Lecture 37 monday april 15 2013

Last time:

Answers to student questions

Page replacement algorithms

Today

Page replacement algorithms

Implementation of paging

Hit and miss ratios

Performance penalties

Next time

Virtual memory

Reading assignments

Chapters 8 and 9 of the textbook

Lecture 37 – Monday, April 15, 2013

Lecture 37


Fifo page replacement algorithm ps primary storage

FIFO Page replacement algorithm PS: Primary storage

Lecture 37


Optimal page replacement algorithm

OPTIMAL page replacement algorithm

Lecture 37


Lru page replacement algorithm

LRU page replacement algorithm

Lecture 37


Lru optimal mru

LRU, OPTIMAL, MRU

LRU looks only at history

OPTIMAL “knows” not only the history but also the future.

In some particular cases Most Recently Used Algorithm performs better than LRU.

Example: primary device with 4 cells.

Reference string 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

LRU F FFFFFFFFFFFFFF

MRU F FFF - - - - F - - - F - -

Lecture 37


Cgs 3763 operating systems concepts spring 2013

The OPTIMAL replacement policy keeps in the 3-blocks primary memory the same pages as it does in case of the 4-block primary memory.

Lecture 37


Cgs 3763 operating systems concepts spring 2013

The FIFO replacement policy does not keep in the 3-blocks primary memory the same pages as it does in case of the 4-block primary memory.

Lecture 37


Cgs 3763 operating systems concepts spring 2013

The LRU replacement policy keeps in the 3-blocks primary memory the same pages as it does in case of the 4-block primary memory.

Lecture 37


Cgs 3763 operating systems concepts spring 2013

The FIFO replacement policy does not keep in the 3-blocks primary memory the same pages as it does in case of the 4-block primary memory

Lecture 37


Implementation of page table

Implementation of Page Table

  • Page table is kept in main memory

  • Page-table base register (PTBR) points to the page table

  • Page-table length register (PRLR) indicates size of the page table

  • In this scheme every data/instruction access requires two memory accesses. One for the page table and one for the data/instruction.

  • To reduce the access time cache the most recently used frame addresses for pages. Use of a special fast-lookup hardware cache the translation look-aside buffers (TLBs) implemented as an associative memory.

  • Before a process A gets control of the CPU

    • the PTBR register is loaded with the address of the page table of process A

    • the PRLR is loaded with the size of the page table of process A.

Lecture 37


Paging hardware

Paging hardware

Lecture 37


Content addressable or associative m emory

Content addressable or associative memory

Page #

Frame #

  • Allows parallel search.

  • Instead an address you search in parallel for a cell with a given contents.

    Address translation (p, d)

    • If p is in associative register, get frame # out

    • Otherwise get frame # from page table in memory

Lecture 37


Tlb hits and misses

TLB hits and misses

Lecture 37


Dynamic address translation

Dynamic address translation

Lecture 37


Hit ratio and miss ratios

Hit ratio and miss ratios

The primary memory is several orders of magnitude faster than the secondary memory.

If a virtual address is within a page P previously brought in the primary memory we have a “hit,” otherwise we have a “miss” and before we access the data we have to bring page P from the secondary storage in, a time consuming operation.

Hit ratio  the fraction of the total number of memory references when we had a hit.

Miss ratio  the fraction of the total number of memory references when we had a miss.

Lecture 37


Two level memory system

Two-level memory system

  • To understand the effect of the hit/miss ratios we consider only a two level memory system

    • P  a faster and smaller primary memory

    • S  A slower and larger secondary memory.

  • The two levels could be:

    P  L1 cache and S  main memory

    P  main memory and S disk

Lecture 37


The performance of a two level memory

The performance of a two level memory

  • The latency Lp << LS

    • LP latency of the primary device e.g., 10 nsec for RAM

    • LS latency of the secondary device, e.g., 10 msec for disk

  • Hit ratio h the probability that a reference will be satisfied by the primary device.

  • Average Latency (AS)  AS = h x LP + (1-h) LS.

  • Example:

    • LP = 10 nsec (primary device is main memory)

    • LS = 10 msec (secondary device is the disk)

    • Hit ratio h= 0.90  AS= 0.9 x 10 + 0.1 x 10,000,000 = 1,000,000.009 nsec~ 1000 microseconds = 1 msec

    • Hit ratio h= 0.99  AS= 0.99 x 10 + 0.01 x 10,000,000 = 100,000.0099 nsec~ 100 microseconds = 0.1 msec

    • Hit ratio h= 0.999  AS= 0.999 x 10 + 0.001 x 10,000,000 = 10,000.0099 nsec~ 10 microseconds = 0.01 msec

    • Hit ratio h= 0.9999  AS= 0.999 0x 10 + 0.001 x 10,000,000 = 1,009.99 nsec~ 1 microsecond

      This considerable slowdown is due to the very large discrepancy (six orders of magnitude) between the primary and the secondary device.

Lecture 37


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