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Training. Training & Development. Definition “The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles, or skills, that result in improved performance at work.” Training skill enhancement processes for non-managerial jobs Development

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Training

Training


Training development

Training & Development

  • Definition

    • “The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles, or skills, that result in improved performance at work.”

    • Training

      • skill enhancement processes for non-managerial jobs

    • Development

      • skill enhancement processes for managerial jobs


Topics

Topics

  • Who needs what kind of training?

    • Needs analysis

    • Learning objectives

    • Learning environment

  • How should training be delivered?

    • Instructional techniques

  • Was training effective?

    • Measuring criteria

    • Experimental design (interpreting results)

    • Training validity


The classic training system

The Classic Training System

Needs assessment

Organizational analysis

Task/ KSA analysis

Person analysis

Training Validity

Training objectives

Development

of criteria

Transfer Validity

Selection & design

of training program

Intraorganizational

Validity

Training

Use of

evaluation models

Interorganizational

Validity


Training needs assessment

Training Needs Assessment

  • Organizational Analysis

    • Examines systemwide factors that effect the transfer of newly acquired skills to the workplace

  • Person Analysis

    • Who needs what kind of training

  • Task Analysis

    • Provides statements of the activities and work operations performed on the job


Training objectives

Training Objectives

  • Formal description of what trainee should be able to do after training

  • Objectives

    • Convey training goals

    • Provide a framework to develop course content

    • Provide a basis for assessing training achievement

  • Characteristics of effective objectives

    • Statement of desired capability or behavior

    • Specify conditions under which behavior will be performed

    • State the criterion of acceptable performance


Considerations in training design

Considerations in Training Design

  • Designing a learning environment

    • Learning principles

    • Trainee characteristics

    • Instructional techniques


Phases of skill acquisition

Phases of Skill Acquisition

Procedural

Knowledge

Knowledge

Compilation

Acquiring

Declarative

Knowledge

Back


Important trainee characteristics

Important Trainee Characteristics

  • Trainee readiness

    • Trainability tests

      • Have prospective trainees perform a sample of tasks that reflect KSAs needed for job

  • Trainee motivation

    • Arousal, persistence, and direction

    • Factors related to high motivation

      • Self-efficacy

      • Locus of Control

      • Commitment to Career

Back


Instructional techniques

Instructional Techniques

  • Traditional Approaches

    • Classroom Instruction

      • Lecture and Discussion

      • Case Study

      • Role Playing

    • Self-Directed Learning

      • Readings, Workbooks, Correspondence Courses

      • Programmed Instruction

    • Simulated/Real Work Settings

      • Vestibule training

      • Apprentice training

      • On-the-job training

      • Job Rotation/Cross Training


New training technologies

New Training Technologies

  • Distance Learning

  • CD-Rom and Interactive Multimedia

  • Web-based Instruction

  • Intelligent Tutoring Systems

  • Virtual Reality Training


Kirkpatrick s evaluation criteria

Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Criteria

  • Level 1 – Reaction

    • Did trainees like the training and feel it was useful

  • Level 2 – Learning

    • Did trainees learn material stated in the objectives

  • Level 3 – Behavioral

    • Are trainees using what was learned back on the job

  • Level 4 – Results

    • Are benefits greater than costs


Assessing training outcomes

Assessing Training Outcomes

  • Goal is to identify training as “cause” of changes in on-the-job behavior or organizational results.

  • Experimental designs help researchers to link training to results

  • There are a number of reasons (threats) why it is difficult to determine impact of training on results

    • The Wisdom Pill


Experimental design

Experimental Design

  • Controlling potential confounds

    • Goal of experiment is to “rule out” alternate explanations of what affected dependent variable

      • Confounds are threats to internal validity

      • Can be controlled through appropriate experimental design and procedures


Internal validity

Internal Validity

  • Confounds Controlled by Experimental Design

    • History

    • Maturation

    • Testing

    • Instrumentation

    • Statistical Regression

    • Selection

    • Mortality

    • Selection-Maturation

  • Confounds NOT controlled by Experimental Design

    • Diffusion of Treatment

    • Compensatory Equalization

    • Compensatory Rivalry


Pre experimental designs

Disadvantages

Controls none of the threats to internal or external validity

Basically worthless

Advantages

Can potentially provide information for speculation about training effectiveness

Pre-experimental Designs

Post with no Control Group

Training

Posttest


Pre experimental designs1

Cannot rule out any threats to internal or external validity

Except possibly mortality

Advantages

Can determine if change occurred

May be able to understand mortality

Pre-experimental Designs

Pre – Post with no Control Group

Pretest

Training

Posttest


Experimental designs

Experimental Designs

Posttest-Only Control Group Design

Experimental

Training

Posttest

Random

Assignment

Group

Differences

Control

Posttest


Experimental designs1

Experimental Designs

Pre – Post with Control Group

Pretest

Experimental

Training

Posttest

Group

Differences

Group

Differences

Pretest

Control

Posttest


Experimental designs2

Experimental Designs

Solomon Four Group Design

Group 1

Pretest

Training

Posttest

Group 2

Pretest

No Training

Posttest

Group 3

Training

Posttest

Group 4

Posttest

No Training


Assessing training program validity

Assessing Training Program “Validity”

  • Training Validity

  • Transfer Validity

  • Intraorganizational Validity

  • Interorganizational Validity


Key dates for group project

Key Dates for Group Project

  • April 30th –Training Objectives Due

  • May 12th – Evaluation Materials Due

  • May 14th and 19th – Training Delivered

  • June 9th – Group Report Due


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