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Minerals. Day 3 Student Notes Quiz Monday!. MINERALS. Elements are the basic building blocks of minerals ! But what is a mineral ? Naturally Occurring Solid Substance Orderly Crystalline Structure Definite Chemical Composition Generally considered inorganic.

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Day 3 Student Notes

Quiz Monday!


  • Elementsare the basic building blocks of minerals!

  • But what is a mineral?

    • Naturally Occurring

    • Solid Substance

    • Orderly Crystalline Structure

    • Definite Chemical Composition

    • Generally considered inorganic

Minerals is it a mineral
MINERALS – Is it a mineral?

  • Why would ice be considered a mineral, but water would not?

  • Is coal considered a mineral? Explain.

  • When you “grow a crystal” from a kit, are you creating a mineral? Explain.

  • Name a mineral that you know of – use the definition of a mineral to write a sentence verifying it is a mineral.

Mineral formation
Mineral Formation

  • Minerals are formed in a few ways:

    • Crystallization from magma

    • Precipitation

    • Pressure and Temperature (within the earth)

    • Hydrothermal Solutions

      Minerals formed by the

      crystallization of magma

Mineral formation1
Mineral Formation

  • For each of these ways a mineral is formed, the bottom line is that elements are bonding together.

  • Today we are going to talk about the how they are categorized according to which elements are bonded together.

Mineral formation2
Mineral Formation

  • Mineral Groups

  • Minerals can be classified based on their composition.

  • We will discuss 6 mineral groups today and how you can know which groups minerals belong to based on their chemical composition.

2 2 minerals
2.2 Minerals

1. Silicates

  • Silicon and oxygen combine to form a structure called the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. This silicon-oxygen tetrahedron provides the framework of everysilicate mineral.

2 2 minerals1
2.2 Minerals

1. Silicates

  • Use the periodic table to find the symbol for Silicon.

  • Use the table to find the symbol for oxygen.

  • Whenever you see these symbols together in a compound it will be classified as a silicate.

  • Example: Orthoclase Feldspar - KAlSi 3O 8

  • What other elements do you see in this compound?

  • Other examples: Quartz – SiO2

Sio 2 quartz used to make glass and gemstones
SiO2 - Quartz– used to make glass and gemstones.

It is one of the most abundant minerals found on earth!

Kalsi 3 o 8 feldspar makes porcelain and china
KAlSi 3O 8 - Feldspar – makes porcelain and china

2 2 minerals2

Mineral Groups

2.2 Minerals

2. Carbonates

  • Minerals that contain the elements carbon, oxygen, and one or more other metallicelements

  • Aragonite – a collectors item

2 2 minerals3

Mineral Groups

2.2 Minerals

3. Oxides

  • Minerals that contain oxygen and one or more other elements, which are usually metals


Ice and snow

Zincite – used in semiconductors

2 2 minerals4

Mineral Groups

2.2 Minerals

4. Sulfates and Sulfides

  • Minerals that contain the element sulfur

5. Halides

  • Minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements

6. Native elements

  • Minerals that exist in relatively pure form

  • Name 3 examples of Native Elements:


Galena – mined for lead

Pyrite – “fool’s gold” – mined for iron

Applying mineral groups
Applying Mineral Groups

To which mineral group do each of the following minerals belong:

  • Bornite (Cu5FeS4)

  • Cuprite (Cu2O)

  • Magnesite (MgCO3)

  • Barite (BaSO4)

    Answer individually, after 5 minutes you will compare with a partner.

Mineral formation3
Mineral Formation

Answer the following questions:

  • Name the first four major groups of minerals, and give at least two examples of minerals in each group.

  • Compare and contrast oxides and silicates.