Hedging
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Hedging. Hedge: engage in a financial transaction that reduces or eliminates risk Basic hedging principle: Hedging risk involves engaging in a financial transaction that offsets a long position by taking a short position, or offsets a short position by taking a additional long position.

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Hedging

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Hedging

Hedging

Hedge:engage in a financial transaction that reduces or eliminates risk

Basic hedging principle:

Hedging risk involves engaging in a financial transaction that offsets a long position by taking a short position, or offsets a short position by taking a additional long position


Interest rate forward markets

Interest-Rate Forward Markets

Long position = agree to buy securities at future date

Hedges by locking in future interest rate if funds coming in future

Short position = agree to sell securities at future date

Hedges by reducing price risk from change in interest rates if holding bonds

Pros

1.Flexible

Cons

1.Lack of liquidity: hard to find counterparty

2.Subject to default risk: requires information to screen good from bad risk


Financial futures markets

Financial Futures Markets

Financial Futures Contract

1.Specifies delivery of type of security at future date

2.Arbitrage  at expiration date, price of contract = price of the underlying asset delivered

3.i, long contract has loss, short contract has profit

4.Hedging similar to forwards

Micro (individual securities) vs. macro hedge (entire portfolio)

Traded on Exchanges: Global competition

Regulated by Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Success of Futures Over Forwards

1.Futures more liquid: standardized, can be traded again, delivery of range of securities

2.Delivery of range of securities prevents corner (somebody buys out certain type of security)

3.Mark to market and margin requirements: avoids default risk

4.Don’t have to deliver: netting


Widely traded financial futures contracts

Widely Traded Financial Futures Contracts


Widely traded financial futures contracts1

Widely Traded Financial Futures Contracts


Hedging fx risk

Hedging FX Risk

Example: Customer due 10 million euro in two months, current rate: 1 euro = $1

1. Forward contract to sell 10 million euros for $10 million, two months in future

2. Sell 10 million of euro futures


Options

Options

Options Contract

Right to buy (call option) or sell (put option) instrument at exercise (strike) price up until expiration date (American) or on expiration date (European)

Hedging with Options

Buy same # of put option contracts as would sell of futures

Disadvantage: pay premium

Advantage: protected if i, gain if i

Additional advantage if macro hedge: avoids accounting

problems, no losses on option when i


Profits and losses options vs futures

$100,000 T-bond contract,

1. Exercise price of 115, $115,000.

2. Premium = $2,000

Profits and Losses: Options vs. Futures


Factors affecting premium

Factors Affecting Premium

1.Higher strike price  lower premium on call options and higher premium on put options

2.Greater term to expiration  higher premiums for both call and put options

3.Greater price volatility of underlying instrument  higher premiums for both call and put options


Interest rate swap contract

Interest-Rate Swap Contract

1.Notional principle of $1 million

2.Term of 10 years

3.Midwest SB swaps 7% payment for T-bill + 1% from Friendly Finance Co.


Hedging with interest rate swaps

Hedging with Interest-Rate Swaps

Reduce interest-rate risk for both parties

1.Midwest converts $1m of fixed rate assets to rate-sensitive assets, Rate Sens. Assets, lowers gap (liabilities-assets)

2.Friendly Finance RSA, lowers gap

Advantages of swaps

1.Reduce risk, no change in balance-sheet

2.Longer term than futures or options

Disadvantages of swaps

1.Lack of liquidity

2.Subject to default risk

Financial intermediaries help reduce disadvantages of swaps


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