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Chapter 18. Environmental Hazards and Human Health. Risk is a measure of the likelihood that you will suffer harm from a hazard. We can suffer from : Biological hazards : from more than 1,400 pathogens. Chemical hazards : in air, water, soil, and food.

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Chapter 18

Chapter 18

Environmental Hazards and Human Health


Risks and hazards

  • Risk is a measure of the likelihood that you will suffer harm from a hazard.

  • We can suffer from:

    • Biological hazards: from more than 1,400 pathogens.

    • Chemical hazards: in air, water, soil, and food.

    • Physical hazards: such as fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption…

    • Cultural hazards: such as smoking, poor diet, unsafe sex, drugs, unsafe working conditions, and poverty.

RISKS AND HAZARDS


Types of diseases

  • nontransmissible disease- Diseases not caused by living organisms cannot spread from one person to another

    • Heart disease, emphysema, asthma,

  • transmissible or infectious-while those caused by living organisms such as bacteria and viruses can spread from person to person

    • Flu, HIV, Malaria, Lyme, Hepatitis B

Types of diseases:


Transmissible disease

Transmissible Disease

Figure 18-4


Transmissible disease1

Transmissible Disease

Figure 18-5


Hiv aids epidemic

  • WHO reported in 2005- 42 million (1.1 mill US) had HIV infections kill 13.6 million people – most of them the poor in developing countries.

  • No vaccine

  • Drugs are limited among poor

  • How does HIV affect humans?

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2h0ECyMWhE

  • Where did AIDS come from?

    • http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=147491878&m=147496246

    • http://www.npr.org/2012/02/27/147491878/tinderbox-how-the-west-fueled-the-aids-epidemic

HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC


Core case study the global hiv aids epidemic

Core Case Study: The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

How does this age structure affect the economics of this country?

Figure 18-2


How would you vote

  • Should developed and developing nations mount an urgent global campaign to reduce the spread of HIV and to help countries afflicted by the disease?

    • a. No. A global AIDS campaign could divert attention and resources from efforts to combat other serious threats.

    • b. Yes. The disease is decimating the populations and destroying the economies of many developing countries.

How Would You Vote?


Case study the growing global threat from tuberculosis

  • Recent increases global campaign to reduce the spread of HIV and to help countries afflicted by the disease

    in TB are due to:

    • Lack of TB screening and control programs

    • Genetic resistance to the most effective antibiotics.

    • Population growth, urbanization, air travel

    • More AIDS which weakens immune system

Case Study: The Growing Global Threat from Tuberculosis


Most dangerous viral diseases

  • Flu, HIV, and hepatitis B global campaign to reduce the spread of HIV and to help countries afflicted by the diseaseviruses infect and kill many more people each year then highly publicized West Nile and SARS viruses.

  • 1918 Spanish Flu

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbYwNOcKqqc&feature=related

  • Hepatitis B is a virus that attacks your liver which is your natural filter of toxins

Most Dangerous Viral Diseases


Case study malaria death by mosquito

Case Study: Malaria – Death by Mosquito

Figure 18-7


Http www youtube com watch v ivbq2yqh52g feature related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVbq2yQH52g&feature=related probably killed more than all of the wars ever fought.


Reducing chances of malaria

Reducing Chances of Malaria


Growing germ resistance

  • Rabidly producing infectious bacteria are becoming pesticide DDT greatly reduces the number of malaria cases.genetically resistant to widely used antibiotics due to:

    • Genetic resistance: Spread of bacteria around the globe by humans, overuse of pesticides which produce pesticide resistant insects that carry bacteria.

    • Overuse of antibiotics: A 2000 study found that half of the antibiotics used to treat humans were prescribed unnecessarily.

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjR6L38yReE

Growing Germ Resistance


More infectious diseases

  • E.Coli pesticide DDT greatly reduces the number of malaria cases.

  • Salmonella

  • Lyme

More infectious diseases…


Solutions pesticide DDT greatly reduces the number of malaria cases.

Infectious Diseases

Increase research on tropical diseases and vaccines

Reduce poverty

Decrease malnutrition

Improve drinking water quality

Reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics

Educate people to take all of an antibiotic prescription

Reduce antibiotic use to promote livestock growth

Careful hand washing by all medical personnel

Immunize children against major viral diseases

Oral rehydration for diarrhea victims

Global campaign to reduce HIV/AIDS

Fig. 18-8, p. 424


Chemical hazards

  • A toxic chemical can cause temporary or permanent harm or death.

    • Mutagens are chemicals or forms of radiation that cause or increase the frequency of mutations in DNA.

      • Ex. Radiation exposure, sunlight

    • Teratogens are chemicals that cause harm or birth defects to a fetus or embryo.

      • Ex. Pregnant women drinking alcohol

    • Carcinogens are chemicals or types of radiation that can cause or promote cancer.

      • Ex. Cigarette smoke, Arsenic

CHEMICAL HAZARDS


Effects of chemicals on the immune nervous and endocrine systems

  • Long-term exposure to some chemicals at low doses may disrupt the body’s:

    • Immune system: specialized cells and tissues that protect the body against disease and harmful substances.

    • Nervous system: brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

    • Endocrine system: complex network of glands that release minute amounts of hormones into the bloodstream.

Effects of Chemicals on the Immune, Nervous, and Endocrine Systems


Effects of chemicals on the immune nervous and endocrine systems1

Effects of Chemicals on the Immune, Nervous, and Endocrine Systems

Figure 18-9


Bhopal india

  • The world’s worst industrial accident occurred in 1984 at a pesticide plant.

    • An explosion at Union Carbide pesticide plant in an underground storage tank released a large quantity of highly toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas.

    • 15,000-22,000 people died and there are still people suffering today

    • http://espn.go.com/video/clip?id=5793810

Bhopal, India


Toxicology assessing chemical hazards

TOXICOLOGY: ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS


Helpful vocab related to harm on a individual caused by a substance

  • Solubility chemical include:- fat soluble substances (nonpolar) accumulate in cells

  • Persistence- resist breaking down

  • Bioaccumulation- molecules absorb and store in specific organs/tissues

  • Biomagnification- as you move up the food chain/web there is more of the toxin

Helpful vocab. Related to harm on a individual caused by a substance


Who toxins affect

Who toxins affect…

Figure 18-10


How do we reduce the harmful effects of toxins

  • Break down and excrete a population, mostly because of genetic variation.

  • Enzymes repair damaged DNA

  • Cells reproduce and replace damaged areas

How do we reduce the harmful effects of toxins?


What are children more susceptible to toxins

  • Children breathe more air, drink more water, and eat more food per unit of body weight than adults.

  • They are exposed to toxins when they put their fingers or other objects in their mouths.

  • Children usually have less well-developed immune systems and detoxification processes than adults.

What are children more susceptible to toxins?


Toxicology assessing chemical hazards1

  • Under existing laws, most chemicals are considered food per unit of body weight than adults.innocent until proven guilty, and estimating their toxicity is difficult, uncertain, and expensive.

    • Federal and state governments do not regulate about 99.5% of the commercially used chemicals in the U.S.

TOXICOLOGY: ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS


Prevention vs reaction

Prevention vs. Reaction


Risk analysis

RISK ANALYSIS

Figure 18-12



Risk analysis2

RISK ANALYSIS

Figure 18-13


Becoming better at risk analysis

Becoming Better at Risk Analysis

Figure 18-3


Environmental changes and diseases

  • Global Warming news covered in the media, compare risks, and concentrate on reducing personal risks over which we have some control. warmer temps for more mosquitos survivingMalaria

  • Deforestation bats Nipah virus and pigs humans

  • Deforestation less fox more mice  more ticks Lyme

Environmental Changes and Diseases


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