Organic chemistry
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Organic Chemistry. Chemistry involving compounds that involve primarily C, H, O. Formulas or Formulae. Molecular Empirical Structural Condensed Struc. Form. “R” (CH 2 ) x. Structural (or Constitutional) Isomers . What are they? Given a formula, draw some

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Chemistry involving compounds that involve primarily C, H, O


Formulas or formulae
Formulas or Formulae

  • Molecular

  • Empirical

  • Structural

    • Condensed Struc. Form.

      • “R”

      • (CH2)x


Structural or constitutional isomers
Structural (or Constitutional) Isomers

  • What are they?

  • Given a formula, draw some

  • Given struc. formulae, identify them


Iupac naming
IUPAC Naming

  • # of C

    • Meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec

  • Numbering carbons

    • Longest chain of C

    • From end with first branching


Functional groups
Functional groups

  • Group of atoms bonded together that result in similar properties

    • Alcohols

    • Aldehyde

    • Ketone

    • Carboxylic Acids

    • Halides

    • Amine (ID w/ in struc only) Prim sec & tertiary

    • Benzene (ID w/ in struc only)

    • Ester (ID w/ in struc only)


Func naming
Func. & naming

  • Group of atoms bonded together that result in similar properties

    • Alcohols (hydroxyl) Name ends in -ol

    • Aldehyde -al

    • Ketone -one

    • Carboxylic Acids -oic acid

    • Halides name starts with …

    • Amine (ID w/ in struc only) Prim sec & tertiary

    • Benzene (ID w/ in struc only)

    • Ester (ID w/ in struc only)


Writing struc form w func grp
Writing struc. form. w/ func. grp.

  • What is a possible struc form for a molecule with…

    • Ketone C4H8O

    • Aldehyde C6H12O

    • Carboxylic acid C5H10O2

    • Halide C2H5Cl


Other isomers
Other isomers

  • Cis-trans


Objectives
Objectives

  • Distinguish between Empirical, Molecular and Structural formulas

    • structural formula shows unambiguously how the atoms are arranged together

    • a condensed structural formula can omit bonds between atoms and can show identical groups bracketed together. use of symbols like “R” and a benzene ring can be shown in condensed formulas (skeletal formulas will not be excepted)

  • Describe structural isomers as compounds with the same molecular formula but with different arrangements of atoms (stereoisomerism not required)

  • Deduce structural formulas for the isomers of non-cyclic alkanes up to C6 (both straight and branched chain isomers) 

  • Apply IUPAC rules for the non-cyclic alkanes up to C6

  • Deduce structural formulas for the isomers of the straight-chained alkenes up to C6


Objectives1
Objectives

  • Apply IUPAC rules for naming the isomers of the straight-chain alkenes (distinction between cis and trans not required)

  • Deduce structural formulas for compounds containing up to 6 C atoms with one of the following functional groups: Alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, and halide

  • Identify the following functional groups when present in structural formulas: Amino or amine (NH2), benzene (the ring), and esters (RCOOC)

  • Identify primary, secondary, and tertiary carbon atoms in alcohols and holgenalkanes (the terms prime., sec., and tert. can also be applied to the molecules containing these carbon atoms

  • Discuss the volatility and solubility in water of compounds containing the following functional groups: Alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, and halide


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