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M1/7/13; M12/19/11 ; T12/14/10 ; W12/16/09. National Politics During Reconstruction ( Ch. 16.4 & 16.5; pp. 462-471 ) Q: What were the major national political issues during Reconstruction (1865-1877)? What impact did they have on Reconstruction in the South?. I. Grantism.

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m1 7 13 m12 19 11 t12 14 10 w12 16 09
M1/7/13; M12/19/11; T12/14/10 ; W12/16/09

National Politics During Reconstruction

(Ch. 16.4 & 16.5; pp. 462-471)

Q: What were the major national political issues during Reconstruction (1865-1877)? What impact did they have on Reconstruction in the South?

i grantism
I. Grantism
  • widespread corruption
  • many scandals:
    • gold grab
      • Jay Gould & Jim Fisk w/ Grant’s bro-in-law – corner market
    • Credit Mobilier
      • VP Schulyer Colfax – Union Pacific RR construction thru gov’t contracts
    • whiskey ring
      • private sec. Orville Babcock – bribe re: whiskey taxes
    • Indian trading posts
      • Sec War William Belknap – bribes
ii liberal revolt
II. Liberal Revolt
  • split Republican party in 1872 election
  • wanted “home rule”
  • worried about “Grantism” corruption
  • endorsed Horace Greeley
    • Dems also endorsed
  • landslide electoral win, but relatively close popular vote
  • Amnesty Act passed
iii panic of 1873
III. Panic of 1873
  • worst depression to date
  • focused on overspeculation in RR’s
  • collapse of Jay Cooke’s bank
  • lasted for five years
iv currency
IV. Currency
  • silver issue – Bland-Allison Act (1878)
  • greater credit
  • important issue again in 1890s (next depression)
  • greenbacks
  • Greenback Party – 1876
v constitutional issues
V. Constitutional Issues
  • slowly chipped away at reconstruction’s gains
  • ex parte Milligan (1866)
    • banned military tribunals when regular courts open
    • impacted other laws enforced by military courts – Freedmen’s Bureau
  • TX v. White (1869)
    • upheld reconstruction process as constitutional (re-admittance of states)
v constitutional issues cont
V. Constitutional Issues (cont.)
  • Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
    • involves LA slaughterhouse monopoly by state
    • interpreted 14th Amend. narrowly
    • only protects national citizenship, not state citizenship
    • does not protect against state restrictions
    • only protects in interstate travel, sea travel
  • US v. Reese (1876) – KY –
    • 1stEnforcement Act/15thAmend.
    • interprets 15th Amend narrowly & literally
v constitutional issues cont1
V. Constitutional Issues (cont.)
  • US v. Cruikshank –
    • LA & Colfax Massacre
    • 14th Amend protects against states, not individuals
    • individuals, not state, committed act
    • [similar parallel to debate over “hate crimes” today]
  • 1883 – Sup. Ct. invalidated C.R. Act of 1875 & KKK Act of 1871
  • Plessy v. Ferguson – 1896 – “separate but equal”
vi weakening support redemption
VI. Weakening Support & Redemption
  • Republicans split nationally
  • many Radicals retired or dead
  • Moderate Reps worried about maintaining Rep. majority
  • Americans worried about other issues, not South
  • Dems back in power
  • by 1876, all states except 3 – FL, SC, LA
vii election of 1876 compromise of 1877
VII. Election of 1876 & Compromise of 1877
  • Hayes (Rep.) v. Tilden (Dem.)
  • disputed results – FL, LA, SC
  • electoral commission – 7 Reps, 7 Dems, 1 Ind
    • Independent replaced by Rep.
  • Hayes wins – “Rutherfraud” – Reps.
    • Dems upset; need Dem. support
  • ends military recon.
    • troops pull out of S.
  • Reconstruction officially ends
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